Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Bacteria on Stainless Steel Surfaces | Experiment

Microscopic organisms on Stainless Steel Surfaces | Experiment The connection of microorganisms on food preparing surfaces and in nature can cause expected cross-defilement, which can prompt food decay, conceivable sanitation concerns, and surface pulverization. Food contact surfaces utilized for food dealing with, capacity or handling are territories where microbial pollution normally happens. Indeed, even with legitimate cleaning and sanitation systems or practices set up, microbes can stay joined to the surfaces and this connection can prompt biofilm development. The motivation behind this examination was to recognize the nearness of pathogenic microorganism in a food handling zone and to assess the impact of the cleaning strategy on the microbial burden in the food preparing region. Ten imitate food contact surfaces were tried: tempered steel, marble and wood, with contiguous regions being inspected when cleaning. The test surfaces were dissected with a swab strategy when the cleaning stage. The aftereffects of these examinations show that t hree of ten treated steel surface were debased before cleaning and no surface was polluted subsequent to cleaning. Moreover, three out of ten marble surfaces were sullied before cleaning and one surface was tainted in the wake of cleaning. Six of ten wood surfaces were vigorously sullied before cleaning and three surfaces were defiled in the wake of cleaning. The trouble in cleaning was identified with the measure of surface harm and it is ideal to stay away from this kind of surface. Hypochlorite arrangement that was utilized for cleaning the surfaces in this investigation was viewed as viable against the foodborne pathogens tried. This examination has featured the way that pathogens stay feasible on dry tempered steel surfaces and present a pollution danger for extensive timeframes, reliant on the sullying levels and sort of pathogen. Catchphrases: Microorganisms; Survival; Cross-defilement; Food contact surface Presentation Food contact surfaces are the main native of biofilm that can have conceivably unsafe microorganisms. This, accordingly, is an unmistakable marvel in food preparing plants attributable to leftovers and buildups of numerous types substance, natural, natural, as well as inorganic - which develop on the surfaces of types of gear that may get in contact with food (Mafu et al. 2010). The nearness of these bothersome microorganisms to the material surfaces is a wellspring of worry, as this can bring about food cross-tainting, prompting food contamination. Under good conditions (temperature, pH, relative stickiness), pathogenic microorganisms can endure as well as imitate for an enormous scope inside the biofilm. In local kitchens and food handling enterprises, foodborne ailment can result from inaccurate capacity of nourishments, especially concerning temperature, sullying of crude or cooked nourishments before utilization, by contact with different nourishments or utensils (food contact s urfaces ) conveying pathogens, and lacking cleaning techniques that may not see total evacuation of microorganisms (Teixeira et al. 2007). In food handling enterprises, food contact surfaces, for example, treated steel, marble and wood may make an empowering domain for the endurance of the microorganism, prompting genuine clean issues. Besides, impasses, corners, joints, valves and some other difficult to-arrive at places are the most proper zones for the nearness of microorganisms. (Peng et al. 2001). The estimation of support and purification forms in food handling enterprises depends, to a huge degree, on the structure and upkeep programs embraced by the organization. Absence of viability in cleaning methodology may permit tirelessness and endurance of pathogens in nourishments inferable from their predictable adherence to food contact surfaces. This may prompt exchange of microorganisms from individuals, questions or sullied food to other food or material, thus prompting cross-defilement. Individuals can, from numerous points of view, be a wellspring of cross-defilement to nourishments (Holah and Thorpe, 1990). Food can be tainted when it is dealt with, so it is significant that individuals who might be conveying or experiencing certain infections don't deal with food. Defilement can likewise be passed from hardware while reaching food. It explicitly happens when utensils or hardware are not productively cleaned and disinfected between each utilization and may prompt advancement of biofilm, making good conditions for the endurance of the pathogens. Tainting from food to food happens principally when crude nourishments come into contact with cooked or arranged food sources (Montville et al. 2001). The diligent nearness of microorganisms in food handling manufacturing plants, explicitly on food contact surfaces in spite of conscious endeavors to battle the marvel, presents extraordinary difficulties to the organization. It lessens the net revenues of the enterprises because of the expanded expense brought about in the endeavors to receive propelled cleaning administrations and projects. A likely impact of the nearness of microorganisms on food surfaces is food contamination. Event of food contamination will mean extraordinary harm to the picture of the organization and determined weight with respect to the administration, in this manner wrecking the advancement of the organization. Cross sullying is likewise turning into a typical issue both in the kitchen setting and in industry. Move of safe pathogens and microorganisms across and around these food makers through different specialists and components that spread and convey the pathogens is a wellbeing risk. Studies show that the degree of sullying changes relying upon the duplication and the pace of material dealing with that happens in the production line. In this specific situation, along these lines, workers㠢㠢‚⠬㠢„â ¢ hands, utensils and the expansive augmentation of all food contact surfaces add to in cross pollution (Zhao et al. 1998). A careful assessment of the entire idea of microbial endurance and determination on food contact surfaces in spite of run of the mill cleaning methods and reconsidered structures of the food contact surfaces, (for example, textural properties, kept up strong surface hydrophobicity) will uncover that progressively nitty gritty examination and studies ought to be centered around the components that make an empowering domain for the tireless replication and nearness of the foodborne pathogens in the food preparing enterprises and kitchen setting (Scott and Bloomfield, 1990). The investigation of different applicable properties for the microbial grip process has been another basic objective of this examination and the reason behind it is to get a more extensive information base of the instruments of bacterial attachment to food contact surfaces in order to detail systems for its control. The goal of this examination is to recognize the microorganisms that can make due in the food contact surface, for example, treated steel, marble and wood, considerably subsequent to cleaning strategies, along these lines expanding the danger of food cross-pollution. The investigation will concentrate on microorganisms that get by in the food handling zones significantly after the cleaning method. Foodborne pathogenic microscopic organisms hold fast to inactive surfaces; they may show a more prominent size of protection from compound or normal cleaning and treating specialists (Barnes et al. 1999). The idea of cross pollution is of significant worry in the food preparing ventures that comprise a danger to human wellbeing since they cause most food borne sickness episodes. Food contamination is one of the outcomes of adherence of microorganisms to food contact surfaces (Sattar et al. 2001). Materials and Methods Premises So as to evaluate the microbiological security of a food preparing region in Oman, three kinds of food contact surfaces were examined: Stainless steel, marble and wood. Ten surfaces of every one of the three kinds were tried, with the adjoining zones of every one being tested when cleaning. This investigation was performed arbitrarily in nineteen chose Army camps kitchen. Information investigation Swabs were taken from the food preparing region inside the Royal Army camps kitchen and sent to the food microbiology research facility of the ecological of wellbeing unit for investigation. The swabs were each tried for pathogenic microorganisms connected with food and coliforms that can get by on the outside of food arrangement zones when cleaning. The plates were perused for the quantity of states of pathogenic microscopic organisms and coliforms. A Phoenix machine was utilized to recognize the microbes and readings were taken legitimately from the Phoenix machine. A Phoenix is robotized microbiology framework is planned to give fast ID results to generally oxygen consuming and facultative anaerobic Gram positive microscopic organisms just as generally high-impact and facultative anaerobic Gram negative microorganisms. The ID of the Phoeonix panal utilizes a progression of regular, chromogenic and fluorogenic biochemical tests to distinguish the living being. The development based and enzymatic substrates are utilized to cover the various kinds of reactivity among the scope of taxa. The tests depend on the utilization of microorganisms and crumbling of explicit substrates recognized by various marker frameworks. Corrosive creation is demonstrated by an adjustment in phenol red pointer when a separate can use a starch substrate. A yellow shading is produce by Chromogenic substrates upon enzymatic hydrolysis and the enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorogenic substrates brings about the arrival of a fluorescent coumarin induction. Living beings that use a particular carbon source diminish the resazurine based pointer. These outcomes were recorded and the log decrease was determined for each plate at every weakening rate after and before cleaning of the surface (BD Phoenix, 2007). Testing strategies and microbiological assessment (Before Cleaning) Tests utilizing the swab strategy were completed on surfaces polluted with food borne pathogens in a food preparing region. Cylinders containing 10 ml of sterile cradled peptone saline arrangement were utilized to wet th

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Employee Motivation Essay

Dynamic. Representative inspiration is the mental element that stirs a worker to act in a specific way for achieving certain hierarchical objectives. People vary in inspiration along three parameters viz. confidence, requirement for accomplishment, and inherent inspiration. There has been a developing accentuation on employee’s needs as opposed to simply hierarchical necessities, and acknowledgment of the key estimation of workers being created to their best potential. Associations have become progressively mindful that the compelling improvement of their employees’ aptitudes and information has benefits for the entire association. Execution examination can be a significant factor in the defining of profession objectives and the impression of employment fulfillment prompting expanded inspiration and efficiency. The paper inspects worker inspiration at the working environment. What is Motivation? Inspiration depends on feelings. It is the quest for positive enthusiastic encounters and the shirking of negative passionate encounters. Inspiration is engaged with the presentation of every single educated reaction. It is a conduct that won't happen except if it is activated. By and large, therapists question whether inspiration is an essential or auxiliary effect on conduct. For instance, is the conduct originated from character, feeling recognition, and memory or if inspiration comes from ideas that are one of a kind. Every year, billions of dollars are spent on inspiration courses by huge organizations. The course includes preparing in inspiration, gatherings to help inspiration, impetuses to fortify inspiration, gatherings to investigate issues in the work environment inspiration, apparatuses to quantify inspiration statements of purpose, and so on. These instructional meetings additionally remember how to adapt to issues for enlistment, efficiency and maintenance, issues of responsibility to groups and corporate plans. Inspiration is critical to progress and to contact individual and business objectives that one has set. Morals Representatives must figure out how to cooperate towards shared objectives. Representatives must have a comprehension of the association overall and how they fit into the association. They will no doubt need preparing to get the information required for authoritative comprehension. When a comprehension of the association and their job in it has been built up, the worker with follow up on the objectives put forward. The board must show the representative the requirement for their being there and for their yield and information. The start to finish job ought to be reasonable and there must be an away from of corporate morals. There must be correspondence between all levels, start to finish, base to top. No worker ought to be forgotten about. The board ought to guarantee that their workers have a sense of safety and they can be trusted and are rises to among their friends. Execution ought to be seen as a learning experience, not an awful encounter. Evaluations The yearly execution audit is one of the most dreaded and frightful procedures that leaves workers irate and discouraged instead of persuaded to perform better. Organizations have begun to take a gander at the examination as an increasingly formative way to deal with execution assessment, rather than causing the worker to feel progressively shaky about their activity execution. By utilizing this method, it would underscore on giving workers the aptitudes they have to perform successfully. The objective of an arrangement, for example, this is accomplish objectives that have been set by the organization and be assessed on what number of those objectives they have reached. Objectives ought to be clear and adequate to inspire representatives without hesitation. Business execution will improve by utilizing a successful evaluation framework. By characterizing clear targets, the representatives will have the option to concentrate on the predetermined assignment and friends objectives. Examinations help the representatives feel that their great work is perceived and that they are esteemed. It additionally gives a chance to talk about concerns and shortcomings that the worker may have and proposals might be made to discover an answer for the issue. Inspiration Techniques So as to spur representatives, they should comprehend what is anticipated from them. Workers must have an away from of difficulties and practical objectives that they should meet. Workers that are urged to sound rivalry guarantee that the models for victories are clear and don't energize hatred or low assurance. Intense methodologies, such as terminating staff that are not attempting to their maximum capacity, can inspire different representatives to accomplish work better and make progress toward those objectives that have been set. There is no ideal method to persuade staff. A few analysts hold that money related rewards or advantages will be sufficient to inspire workers to give their best exertion. Rivalry between workers is additionally usually utilized as an inspiration methodology now and again. In any case, the keys to viable workers are inspiration techniques that give a scope of motivating forces that intrigue to the various characters of the representatives. While one individual might be driven by cash, another may secure position fulfillment or inventive open doors all the more remarkable elements. Some organization worker inspiration strategies recommend that most representatives react to similar motivating forces. Cash is most generally used to improve inspiration, staff maintenance and desire. Everybody is extraordinary and has their own view about what is essential to their life. Consequently, there are steps that can be utilized to persuade representatives by doing things that they worth and mean making the best choice. They are as per the following: Secure the correct position for the ideal individual Engage Employees Co-activity versus Rivalry Include workers in organization advancement At the point when staff have a sense of safety and sustained in their workplace they performâ better. These means assist representatives with having a sense of safety in their condition: Commendation and acknowledgment of the employee’s triumphs as much as you helpfully scrutinize them. Leave representatives alone mindful of their professional stability. Be a Leader to staff. Make an open to workplace. Treat workers reasonably. Troughs are answerable for supervising representatives who are occupied with work or learning errands. Administrators must know that a few workers take an interest more out of enthusiasm for the assignment than others are. Others gain their fulfillment chiefly out the manner by which their exhibition on the errand prompts rewards like compensation or status. In any case, regularly there is a blend of thought processes where a scope of various motivating forces is pertinent. Most representatives will discover probably some fulfillment in basically accomplishing the work. The equalization of these inborn and outward wellsprings of fulfillment changes starting with one individual then onto the next and between various circumstances. A few people in fact are profoundly energetic by both inborn intrigue and extraneous prizes. Extraneous and natural inspiration Most representatives comprehend natural fulfillment or inherent inspiration, when a movement is fulfilling or pleasurable all by itself. These exercises are things workers like and need to do. For a great many people, naturally agreeable exercises are things like eating, resting, chuckling, messing around, winning, making, seeing and hearing excellent things and individuals, etc. To do these things individuals don't should be paid, praised, cheered, expressed gratitude toward, regarded, or anything. They do them for the positive sentiments that are consequently and normally got from the action. Inborn rewards likewise include pleasurable inside sentiments orâ thoughts, such as feeling glad or having a feeling of dominance following concentrating hard and prevailing in a class. Many, perhaps most, exercises are not characteristically fulfilling enough to get a large portion of individuals to do them reliably, so outward inspiration should be applied as remunerations, motivations, or as an approach to maintain a strategic distance from some terrible condition. There are numerous exercises that are naturally fulfilling to certain individuals however not to others. This decent variety proposes that past encounters can impact figuring out what is inherently fulfilling to a person. In numerous exercises, characteristically fulfilling perspectives join with extraneous adjustments. For instance, workers and individuals all in all, naturally appreciate chatting and, simultaneously, they get consideration, acclaim, support and helpful data. For this situation where inherent and extraneous inspirations are blended, one may assume that over some stretch of time the going with outward fortifications bit by bit increment our natural delight in the action and maybe the other way around. Outward Motivation Outward Motivation originates from without, for example, cash, titles, respects, trophies or a date. Extraneous inspiration has been found to demolish natural inspiration. By and by there is a development to take out extraneous inspiration from schools, clinics, and government. Extraneous Motivation can be founded on the expression, â€Å"Do this, and get this.† Methods of Extrinsic Motivation are some of the time dubious. Some contend that representatives see their work as a type of discipline and the check is their prize. Extraneous prizes will in general center consideration all the more barely and to abbreviate time points of view, which may bring about progressively proficient creation of predefined or normalized items. Occupation fulfillment and long haul pledge to an assignment may likewise be influenced. The board first ponders remunerating representatives with cash as a compelling prize. Sadly, cash won't generally inspire workers to perform better or remain with the organization longer. Not every person thinks cash makes theâ world go round. Inherent Motivation Natural inspiration is the fulfillment wherein the prizes originate from doing a movement rather from an aftereffect of the action. Representatives that are naturally spurred will in general be increasingly mindful of a wide scope of wonders, while focusing on complexities, irregularities, novel occasions and unforeseen prospects. They need time and opportunity to settle on decisions, to accumulate and process data, an

Sunday, August 9, 2020

Life and Career of Psychologist Raymond Cattell

Life and Career of Psychologist Raymond Cattell History and Biographies Print Raymond Cattell Psychologist Biography Known for His 16-Factor Personality Model By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on October 17, 2019 More in Psychology History and Biographies Psychotherapy Basics Student Resources Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming Psychologist Raymond Cattell is best known for his  16-factor personality model, developing the concept of  fluid versus crystallized intelligence,  and working with factor and multivariate analysis. Early Life Raymond Cattell was born on March 20, 1905, in a small town in England. He developed an interest in science early on in life and went on to become the first person from his family to attend college, earning his BS in chemistry from the Kings College when he was just 19. After witnessing the devastation of World War I, Cattell developed an interest in using science to solve human problems. He was also influenced by other thinkers of the time including George Bernard Shaw, Aldous Huxley, and H. G. Wells. He earned his  Ph.D.  in psychology from University College in London in 1929. Career and Death After teaching for a few years at Exeter University, Cattell was invited to teach at Columbia University by pioneering psychologist Edward Thorndike. In 1938, he became a professor at Clark University, and in 1941, he moved to Harvard after being invited by Gordon Allport. In 1945, Cattell took a position at the University of Illinois where he established a research department. At the time, the school was developing a pioneering computer that allowed Cattell to conduct factor analysis on a much larger scale than was previously possible. In 1973, Cattell retired from the University of Illinois and eventually settled in Hawaii, where he continued to teach, write, and enjoy his life-long passion for sailing. He died on February 2, 1998. Contributions to Psychology In addition to his research in personality, motivation, and intelligence, Cattells work with multivariate analysis left a lasting mark on psychology. While earlier research in psychology had focused on studying single variables in isolation, Cattell pioneered the use of multivariate analysis that allowed researchers to view individuals as a whole and study aspects of human behavior  that could not be studied in a lab setting. Cattell is well-known for his 16 personality factors, in which he and numerous colleagues utilized factor analysis to identify 16 different fundamental components of personality. He subsequently developed the 16PF personality questionnaire, which is still widely used today. Cattell also influenced the work of other psychologists. In a review of eminent psychologists, Raymond Cattells professional writings ranked as the seventh most frequently cited in psychology journals  over the past 100 years. Psychologists were also surveyed and asked to name who they felt was the most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. Cattell was ranked at number 16. Selected Publications If youre interested in reading some of Cattells works, here are a few to consider: Cattell RB.  The Scientific Use of Factor Analysis in Behavioral and Life Sciences. New York: Plenum; 1978.Cattell RB. Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement. New York: World Book Company; 1957.Cattell RB. Personality: A Systematic Theoretical and Factual Study. New York: McGraw Hill; 1950.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

External and Internal Motivation for Homework and Projects

Do you know what drives you to get good grades or put that extra bit of effort into your science project? What is it that makes us want to do well— both on tests and in our lives? Our reasons or desires to succeed are our motivations. There are two key types of motivations:  intrinsic and extrinsic. The type of motivation that drives us actually affects how well we do.   Intrinsic motivation is the sort of desire that arises from within us. If you are an artist, you may be driven to paint because it brings you joy and peace. If you are a writer you may write to satisfy the need to create stories from the many ideas swimming around inside your head. These drives stem from an interest in the activity or job itself, without any external influence. Internal motivators often become defining qualities or characteristics of the person acting on them. Extrinsic motivation compels you to act based on some outside force or outcome. The desire is not one that would arise naturally within you, but because of someone or some consequence. You might be motivated to do some extra credit to keep from failing your math class. Your boss might offer an incentive program to make you work a little harder. These external influences can have a great impact on why or how people do what they do, sometimes even things that seem out of character.   While it would seem intrinsic motivation would be better than extrinsic, they both have their advantages. Being internally motivated is most rewarding in that the activity or area of study naturally brings a person pleasure. The desire to perform an action requires less effort than an externally driven motivation. Being good at the activity is not necessarily a factor. Many people are motivated to sing karaoke despite their musical ability, for example. Ideally, people would be intrinsically motivated to do well in all aspects of their life. However, that is not the reality. Extrinsic motivation is good for when someone has a job or an assignment to do that they do not really enjoy for its own sake. This can be beneficial in the workplace, school, and life in general. Good grades and the possibility of getting into a good college are good external motivators for a student. Receiving a promotion or a pay raise incentivizes employees to go above and beyond at work. Perhaps some of the most beneficial aspects of extrinsic motivators are that they encourage people to try new things. Someone that has never tried horseback riding may not know that it is something they might really enjoy. A teacher might encourage a talented young student to take classes they normally would not have, introducing them to a new area of interest.   Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations work in different ways but are equally important. It is really great to feel good about doing something you love and doing it well. However, no one can function in the world acting only on internal desires. Those external influences help people develop in all aspects of life.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Copyright Law On The Planet - 1278 Words

â€Å"Only one thing is impossible for God: To find any sense in any copyright law on the planet† (Mark Twain). The concept of copyright in the United States has a large history. The first form of copyright in the United States stems from Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 of the U.S. Constitution in the year 1787, where â€Å"Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. These â€Å"exclusive rights† were originally extremely limited, as the first Copyright Act of 1790 only applied to maps, charts, and books. As time has advanced, copyright practices in the United States have undergone several reforms, among the most recent being the infamous Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998. Said act updated United States law to the requirements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), such as placing limitations on the liability of online service providers for copyright violations made by users. The act, however, has been a subject of controversy in recent times, as some content creators abuse it to control access to their content. This is accomplished through methods such as copyright trolling, in which the copyright holder produces works solely for the purpose of litigation rather than distribution. Oftentimes, these practices are thought to be a violation of fair use, which enables copyrighted work to be used withoutShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Concerning The Ownership Of General Knowledge By Copyright, Trademarks, And Patents950 Words   |  4 PagesVincent Allard English 10th Ms. Rachuy 05/05/2016 The Issue Concerning the Ownership of General knowledge by Copyright, Trademarks, and Patents. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Integrated Marketing Communications Free Essays

string(467) " impractical to develop a regression measure of IMC for BMW cars in this country due to the availability of various types of IMC tools through which the customer can be reached such as direct marketing, personal selling, event sponsorship, media advertising, sales promotions, and the internet limiting the application of this tool since it is hard to tell how each of these factors affect the customers behaviour in an integrated form \(BMW Group in the UK, 2013\)\." Abstract In less than 20 years, IMC has spread all over the world and has become the most accepted business practice. IMC has transformed how communication marketing takes place. The complexities of application of IMC lie in the inability to evaluate the programs effectively. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrated Marketing Communications or any similar topic only for you Order Now Kitchen, Kim and Schultz (2008) argue that this problem will negatively impact on the application and further development of IMC. Several theories have been suggested in an effort of developing an integrated approach to measuring IMC. Some of these theories include measurement of absolute IMC effect, regression models, and IMC measurement over time. Analysis of these arguments, it is evident that none of them provide an effective way of measuring UMC due to the complexities that result from the interactions between different IMC tools. As much as this argument is founded based on the complexities that arise when trying to develop an effective way of evaluating IMC, it is still one of the most current topics that are under scrutiny providing enough data that prove its effectiveness. More so, the measurement of the tools of IMC independently provides data that can be used in the evaluation of IMC. Therefore, this paper concludes that the various measures of the IMC tools is substantive enough to provide a measure and hence determine the effectiveness of IMC 1.0 Introduction The surfacing of IMC is the most important illustration of development that has been realized in the marketing discipline (Kitchen, Kim Schultz, 2008). The increased openness in the world economy has fostered increased competition, which has directly affected the thinking and decision making within many organizations. The idea of integrated marketing was developed around twenty years ago when professionals and academicians were developing an approach that is realistic enough to avail a competitive strategic position within an organization. The onset of 1990s witnessed the advancement of IMC as a hot topic in analysing marketing strategy of many organizations (Belch Belch, 2004). As much as IMC has advanced as a marketing strategy, Kitchen, Kim and Schultz (2008) argue that, the effectiveness and hence further development of IMC is undermined by the lack of evidence on evaluation or measurement of the IMC. This paper will critically analyse this argument to ascertain the credibility of the conclusion that was derived from the above authors’ study. 2.0 Integrated Marketing Communication as a Theory As earlier mentioned the concept of IMC is still new, and most of the theories that explain its application are still under development and scrutiny. When the concept of IMC was first introduced, marketing and advertising theorists were in favour of the concept, believing that it offered advantages for both fields. On the other hand, educators in public relations were out rightly opposed to the concept (Reid, 2005). A good number of scholars in the public relations field argued that not only was IMC a form of imperialism in marketing, but also an encroachment (Belch Belch, 2004). This notion was developed since IMC perceived advertisement as part of marketing utility while public relations as a management function. This argument continued and resulted in several research studies being conducted in the analysis of IMC. Measurement of IMC has been quite challenging with some authors agreeing with the statement that there are no credible measurement techniques for IMC, while others sug gesting that it is quite possible to measure IMC effectively. The lack of effective and acceptable measurement of IMC programs is a major area of criticism. Several authors have argued that most measurements that are applied in the measurement of IMC programs are based on indirect measurements through measurement of the output of the programs rather than measuring the outcomes of communication activities in marketing, which provides a better understanding of the effects of measurement. Schultz and Kitchen (2000) argued that it is impossible to measure many marketing activities directly. More so, it is even more complex to ascertain the value and impacts of communication effects. Therefore, measurability as a problem affects both all marketing communication activities and IMC programs. To fully integrate this concept of un-measurability of IMC, this paper analyses the available theories that provide measures for measuring IMC. 2.1 Measuring absolute IMC Effect This is one of the main theories that try to support the argument that IMC is measurable. However, the nature of the marketing environment limits the measurability of IMC. This is because of the openness of the marketing environment to competing effects and a variety of stimuli from around the globe. Therefore, measuring the true effect of IMC is only achievable in a closed environment such as a laboratory. This involves participants in an experiment that has a controlled group of participants to be able to measure the effects of different IMC programs. 2.2 Regression Models in measuring IMC This is also a major postulate that tries to provide an applicable measure for IMC. This is the most frequently approach used in the measurement of IMC. Lee and Park (2007) are credited for developing a multidimensional tool for measuring IMC. This tool was designed based on regression analysis for validating the scale. On the other hand, Reid (2005) analysed the link between brand outcomes and IMC process. The application of multiple regression analysis enabled the researcher to analyse the effects of marketing variables effectively that are affected by the level of IMC consistency within an organization. However, the problem of the application of regression analysis applied to IMC limits the measurements to a specific channel of marketing communication. IMC involves integration of diverse ways of marketing communication, which limits the practicability of regression analysis as a means of measurement. This is so since multicollinearity is inevitable in IMC while unsupported by regr ession analysis. For instance, if a regression analysis measure of sales and brand value of a product such as BMW cars in the UK is developed, the risk of multicollinearity is inevitable due to the diverse communication channels applied in IMC (Reid, 2005). Therefore, it is impractical to develop a regression measure of IMC for BMW cars in this country due to the availability of various types of IMC tools through which the customer can be reached such as direct marketing, personal selling, event sponsorship, media advertising, sales promotions, and the internet limiting the application of this tool since it is hard to tell how each of these factors affect the customers behaviour in an integrated form (BMW Group in the UK, 2013). You read "Integrated Marketing Communications" in category "Essay examples" 2.3 Measurement of IMC over Time The interlinks in the marketing communication results in a circular process. It is obvious that behaviour influences attitudes and vice versa. For instance, a consumer’s positive familiarity with a brand may force the customer to change the attitude and previous networks or strengthen the positive network that was in existence. Therefore, IMC is based on a long-term synchronization of promotions and messages (Katrandjiev, 2000). IMC is distinguished from the other marketing activities in that it influences the behaviour of the target groups. This happens since IMC is planned, created, implemented and assessed through analysis of consumer behaviour in terms of current and future prospects of purchasing a product or a service. The application of a longitudinal study provides an effective measure for IMC. Since a time factor is a necessity in measuring IMC, accommodation of time as a factor has high chances of providing acceptable and practical results. To develop a measure of ef fectiveness of IMC a comparison between it and the traditional marketing communication (TMC) is necessary. Practicability of this measure in the business world is complex since it is complex to apply both TMC and IMC in order to develop the effectiveness of IMC in a specific organization. Several theories have been developed in the recent past in an attempt to develop the concept of IMC (Duncan, 2002; Schultz, Tannenbaum and Lauterborn, 1993, p.16). However, most of the developmental theories are founded on explanations involving advantages, definitions and acceptance. The main problem facing IMC is the measure of its effectiveness. Several approaches to providing metrics that can be used for measuring IMC have been developed. Many of the theories of measurement of IMC are developed based on the work conducted by Schultz and his colleagues. They conducted a study in 1993, which concluded that the IMC’s main objective is to create communication platforms that support the current purchasing capabilities of all customers or even change future behavioural prospects. Shultz et al concluded that the process of measuring IMC should involve measurement of all behavioural aspects of the customer that is in proximity to the actual acquisition behaviour as possible, and the process of measurement should be developed as part of the planning process. However, the authors did not succeed to measure IMC effectively due to the approach they adopted that measurement focused on output as earlier discussed. Kitchen and Schultz (1999) and Shultz et al (1993) advocated for the use of outside-in planning advance as a way of dealing with the challenges of measuring IMC. This process is designed to be initiated at the customers tracking backward based on the decision to purchase, so as to determine the point where the customer made the decision to purchase the product or service. This approach requires an utmost attention on the customer and the various opportunities where purchase message is delivered to them during the process. Analysis of the impacts of different messages at different points provides an effective way of measuring the impact and hence IMC. Some of the IMC tools through which the customer can be reached are the internet, sales promotions, media advertising, event sponsorship, personal selling, and direct marketing. Since IMC deals with integration, the tools should be monitored so as to determine the impact of the integrated system on consumer behaviour. Developing a tool to measure the integration is quite complex. For instance, it is impossible to measure the absolute IMC effect of coca cola products in the UK due to various competing effects such as price, brands, a variety of promotional strategies, huge number of advertising, as well as the effects of communication which it intertwined between the consumers and the suppliers (Coca Cola, 2013). These results to a very complicated marketing effect that is integrated with cases such as sales promotions affecting brand as well as sales and vice versa. Developing a measure that can integrate these factors is very complex and can only be achieved if conducted individually limiting on determining the effect of integration. 3.0 IMC is Measurable From the analysis above it is obvious that direct measurement of IMC is quite challenging, but there are various ways in which other elements of IMC can be measured and the resultant normalization of the measure be used as a general measure of IMC. Therefore, measurement of IMC is not as ineffective as the argument presented to validate it from derailed development. To fully comprehend this argument, consideration of the effects of various tools of IMC interact and the impacts. This will provide an insight into how various IMC tools can be used in the measurement of the impact and effectiveness of IMC. Therefore, this can be used to plan, execute, and evaluate any IMC program. 3.1 Effects of Advertising Most theories around advertising as IMC tools revolve around how customers perceive advertising messages. The focus of advertising effect is based on measuring the immediate response to the message as a cognitive reaction form of persuasion (Wright, 1980) and significance accessibility model (Baker and Lutz, 2000). Of most significance is the analysis of the effect of advertising over a prolonged period of time. The analysis of the effects of advertising is illustrated in the response hierarchy model (Vaughn, 1980). Therefore, by application of these models, advertising as an IMC tool can be measured effectively and applied in the interpretation of the effect of IMC programs in an organization. 3.2 Sales Promotion Effects In application, promotion of sales accounts for an equal or sometimes even larger budget as advertisements and yet very little has been done regarding measuring the impact of direct sales promotions as an IMC tool (Belch and Belch, 2004). The current marketing field has witnessed increased dependence on direct sales promotions as a marketing tool. This has resulted in increased demand for development of effective tools for quantifying and hence measuring the IMC tool (Neslin, 2002). Sales promotion’s impact is measured by analysing the impact on sales. Most marketers perceive direct sales promotion as a catalyst that increases sales. This limits many marketers to the analysis of the short-term impact of sales promotions on sales. However, sales promotions can also be used in the development of the brand image by influencing consumers’ purchase intentions, attitudes, image, and beliefs. For instance, the difference between brand-building or franchise sales promotions and non-franchise sales promotions can well be analysed by developing a measure for sales promotion (Spethman, 1998). This develops an effective tool for measuring how customers maximize on their efficiency and utility in economizing their purchases. 3.3 Interactive communication effects This is the fastest growing tool of IMC. The interactive media allow for a two-way traffic communication mechanism. This allows consumers to participate in the product or service development. Through interactive media, consumers become active participants in the marketing process. An integrative processing model developed by Rodgers and Thorson (2000) analyses how consumers perceive online advertisement processes. This tool provides data that can be used in quantifying the measure of online advertisement, which can in turn be used as a tool for measuring IMC programs even in an integrated model. For instance, the time consumers spend online can be used in the assessment of the level of consumer interests and participation in online advertisements. The application of traditional advertisement measurement tools can enhance the process of measuring the online advertisements. This approach limits but does not completely hinder the measurement of the impact of interactive media to the con sumer behaviour. 3.4 Synergistic Effects To comprehend the measure of IMC fully, consideration of the effects of multiple marketing tools is essential. This is because most consumers interact with more than one marketing tool before reaching the final decision. According to Naik and Raman (2003), IMC approach is distinguished from the conventional one because IMC analyses the impact of each marketing medium on other mediums. This results to the combined effect of various marketing tools. The development of a measure of Synergistic effects of the marketing tools provides an effective avenue for developing an acceptable measure for IMC programs and their impacts. To highlight on the success of measuring IMC by developing measures for the different IMC tool, this paper will analyse its application at Red Robin, a leading Burger producer in the USA. The success of this company is as a result of application integrated marketing communication in reaching out to its customers. The company applies both online and offline marketing tools this has made it reach most of its consumers as well as attract new customers due to the effectiveness of the IMC tool applied. According to the company’s chief marketing officer, the success of the IMC is entrenched in the application of measurable tools such as advertising, sales promotion, and interactive communication (Red Robin, 2013). With the application of consumer driven marketing strategies, the company has successfully managed to be competitive. 4.0 Conclusion The future of planning and execution of marketing is fully dependent on the IMC approach. The current rate at which IMC is being analysed has proved to be substantive enough to overcome the threat of reduced application of IMC due to its complexities in terms of evaluation. This paper has analysed the most applicable measures for measuring IMC identifying the possible impracticality of the measures. The conclusion is that there is no one single measure that can provide effective IMC effectiveness evaluation. However, its effectiveness can be measured by analysing IMC tools and effects of application of IMC programs as a result of specific tools. The argument presented by Kitchen, Kim and Schultz over the possibility of the hindrances of development of IMC due to lack of measures for evaluating it, is disputable. It is possible to measure the impact of IMC by observing specific tools and quantifying the results by integrating and hence develop a Synergistic effect measure of IMC tools . The continued study and experimentation of IMC will enable it to continue to develop as it poses a positive future as an effective marketing communication tools. The theories have provided information on how the IMC concept has quickly undergone a transformation and acceptability due to the success witnessed in organizations where IMC is applied as a marketing communication tool. References Belch, G. E. Belch, M. A., 2004. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective, (5th Edn), New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin. Baker, W. E. Lutz, R. J., 2000. An Empirical Test of an Updated Relevance-Accessibility Model of Advertising Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 1-15. BMW Group in the UK, 2013, About Us. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from Coca Cola, 2013. About Us. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Duncan, T., 2002. IMC: Using Advertising and Promotion to Build Brands, New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin. Lee, D.H. Park, C.W., 2007. What is ‘neuromarketing’A Discussion and Agenda for Future Research International, Journal of Psychophysiology 63, 199-204. Kitchen, P.J, Kim, I. Schultz, D.E., 2008. Integrated Marketing Communications: Practice Leads Theory, Journal of Advertising Research, 48(4), 531-546. Kitchen, P. J. Schultz, D. E., 1999. A Multi-Country Comparison of the Drive for IMC, Journal of Advertising Research, 39(1), 21-38. Katrandjiev, H.I., 2000. Some Aspects of Measuring Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Series, Economics and Organization, 1(8), 87-93. Neslin, S. A., 2002. Sales Promotion, Cambridge MA: Marketing Science Institute. Naik, P. A. Raman, K., 2003. Understanding the Impact of Synergy in Multimedia Comparisons, Journal of Marketing Research, 60, 375-388. Rodgers, S. Thorson, E. 2000. The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1 (1), 1-23. Reid, M., 2005. Performance Auditing of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMV) Actions and Outcomes, Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 41-54 Red Robin, 2013. About Us. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from Schultz, D Kitchen, P. 2000. A Response to ‘Theoretical Concept or Management Fashion?† Journal of Advertising Research, 40(5), 17-21. Schultz, D., Tannenbaum, S. Lauterborn, R. 1993. Integrated Marketing Communications: Pulling It Together and Making It Work, Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books. Spethman, B., 1998. Is Advertising Dead?† PROMO, 1, 32-36 Vaughn, R. 1980. How Advertising Works: A Planning Model. Journal of Advertising Research, 20(5), 27-33. Wright, P. 1980. Message Evoked Thoughts, Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations. Journal of Consumer Research, 7, 151-75. How to cite Integrated Marketing Communications, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Digital Strategy and Promotion - Digital Marketing free essay sample

The Relationship between Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in an Information Society [pic] Problem Definition: Currently travelers who are intended to travel International through United Airlines have no particular idea in organizing their travel time at the target location. World is developing day by day same like Digital users. Even though we have separate loyal customers for United Airlines, most among them are Digital users in this current environment. The travelers are reaching the helpdesk quite often enquiring flight status, rental car and hotel in the target location.United has a digital business strategy to attract travelers with good customer service, but we see United doesn’t have a social networking app to save their travelers time to accommodate and plan their travel. The main problem I see getting access to the travel/location Information is lack of social networking between the travelers who used United. For example: I am traveling to China, I have never been. We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Strategy and Promotion Digital Marketing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I have no idea on etiquette tips, weather, clothing advice and fashion tips for where you are headed, restaurants and a connection to a writers board about that particular destination etc.I have to login to different websites to post the questions, read blogs, verify ratings, gather other information which is needed is a critical path before you travel which is very time consuming and confusing though. Considering the outputs, collecting the printouts for all these Information and carrying them is a kind of mess. It is easy for a traveler to get all these data from one-stop- shop(Which is a Travelbug app) by loging onto app/site and there it houses People can leave opinions about all things they discovered and tried while on vacation. Users can post questions etc.Basically we are referring same like taking a travel zoo, urban spoon, twitter and putting it into a social site specifically for travelers. You can have a personal page that can be viewed by others (if you allow it) and it shows all the places you have visited in the world. This page will also let you post travel pictures as well. The main theme to refer this Travelbug app is to make traveler feel comfortable while travelling with United and to get all his Information what traveler feels to gather before he checks-in, and make his time utilized in a effective manner and productive.Solution Explanation: Due to the lot of A free mobile phone social networking site (downloaded as app on phone or sign up online) that acts as a social networking site for travelers- it must be activated through the airline site. If you sign up for the site / app through United airlines, the site will automatically have your name, age, gender and where you are going†¦it will house your travel info and then pull the apps of choosing from there. This app will also be a housing app for retailers to promote and advertise to travelers BUT the travelers pick the things they are interested in.Initially, when I set up my travelbug account I choose any and everything I am interested in (and you can change these at any time) so whenever I travel anywhere and my flight is confirmed my page will show items relating to that destination. The social aspect of this is that it acts like a facebook but specifically for travel. Therefore you can meet people and read their pages and what they have to say about the places they have been. You can comment on their posts and ask questions etc.The app will have the feasibility on Retail, etiquette tips, money exchange rates, food, culture information, random facts, history, crime, stay-safe tips, hotel information, flight check-in, flight updates, weather, and world map to document where you have visited, Historical Places to visit near the place where you are flying, concert planner, Casinos If any and a link to buy tickets for local sports (football, Hockey, Cricket .. ) in their individual countries. Friends can click on your spot on the map where you have been before and it goes to the page regarding that destination and can read about your experience or opinions (Ex:Ovi Maps- Face book APP) Or it can show your ratings on restaurants and hotels in that area. In essence, you can meet and interact with people all over the world. While you register to this app it provides 50% discount coupons for the first time users in all United tie ups like Hertz, Avis, The Hilton and Mariott. These can be used excluding the corporate discounts (If any applicable for the Individual).Travelbug is linked with CNN,CSI and NDTV social media where user can access the current affairs around the world with out any delay. Ex: If a user is travelling from USA to India (Chennai) for the first time on business/vacation, he is not really sure how the culture is and how people are? Is Chennai safe to roam around in the evenings alone; Is it safe to be at sea shore alone? How is the crime rate in that city? How the climate is? (Specifies in degrees Centigrade) which makes user to decide the kind of dress needs to be worn.Any sports events happening on the particular week the user is travelling. The members of this travelbug who have already visited Chennai can/would provide their feedback on the restaurants, location and answers to your questions. Travelbug is launched to provide a full fledge Information in one spot where traveler should be comfortable using every time when he plans to travel to any place around the world. Travelbug will be very user friendly in making the traveler to decide where to go and where not and make him to plan in advance which in turn makes his/her travel effective and productive.Explanation the difference between the strategy and Tactics: Tactics and strategy are always relative to one another, and together they bridge the gap between ends and means. The company that clearly understands that difference is the business that will be the most successful, the most durable and the most profitable. Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat. Sun Tzu 1. Strategy means a global plan to reach a long-term goal, and is taken from a Greek word that means army leadership.Tactics, on the other hand, means a short term plan or behavior and comes from a Greek word that means science of arrangement (of an army). Tactics are the actual ways in which the strategies are executed. One uses tactics (little tricks) in a strategy (long-term plan). If the company is not careful, tactics may end up being simply quick fixes that can bring short term gain, but they will not lead to long-term success unless rigorously applied; and they must be part of an overall plan for success.Therefore, it is critical to look at each tactic from the standpoint of what it will do to achieve your overall strategy. Tactics are specifically created and selected to reach particular and measurable objectives. 2. A strategy is an idea†¦ A conceptualization of how the goal could be achieved. Like â€Å"Divide and Conquer. † Another possible war strategy would be â€Å"Nuke ‘Em. † (They call them Strategic Nuclear Weapons because they pretty much eliminate the need for any further tactics. ) A tactic is an action you take to execute the strategy.