Saturday, May 23, 2020

External and Internal Motivation for Homework and Projects

Do you know what drives you to get good grades or put that extra bit of effort into your science project? What is it that makes us want to do well— both on tests and in our lives? Our reasons or desires to succeed are our motivations. There are two key types of motivations:  intrinsic and extrinsic. The type of motivation that drives us actually affects how well we do.   Intrinsic motivation is the sort of desire that arises from within us. If you are an artist, you may be driven to paint because it brings you joy and peace. If you are a writer you may write to satisfy the need to create stories from the many ideas swimming around inside your head. These drives stem from an interest in the activity or job itself, without any external influence. Internal motivators often become defining qualities or characteristics of the person acting on them. Extrinsic motivation compels you to act based on some outside force or outcome. The desire is not one that would arise naturally within you, but because of someone or some consequence. You might be motivated to do some extra credit to keep from failing your math class. Your boss might offer an incentive program to make you work a little harder. These external influences can have a great impact on why or how people do what they do, sometimes even things that seem out of character.   While it would seem intrinsic motivation would be better than extrinsic, they both have their advantages. Being internally motivated is most rewarding in that the activity or area of study naturally brings a person pleasure. The desire to perform an action requires less effort than an externally driven motivation. Being good at the activity is not necessarily a factor. Many people are motivated to sing karaoke despite their musical ability, for example. Ideally, people would be intrinsically motivated to do well in all aspects of their life. However, that is not the reality. Extrinsic motivation is good for when someone has a job or an assignment to do that they do not really enjoy for its own sake. This can be beneficial in the workplace, school, and life in general. Good grades and the possibility of getting into a good college are good external motivators for a student. Receiving a promotion or a pay raise incentivizes employees to go above and beyond at work. Perhaps some of the most beneficial aspects of extrinsic motivators are that they encourage people to try new things. Someone that has never tried horseback riding may not know that it is something they might really enjoy. A teacher might encourage a talented young student to take classes they normally would not have, introducing them to a new area of interest.   Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations work in different ways but are equally important. It is really great to feel good about doing something you love and doing it well. However, no one can function in the world acting only on internal desires. Those external influences help people develop in all aspects of life.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Copyright Law On The Planet - 1278 Words

â€Å"Only one thing is impossible for God: To find any sense in any copyright law on the planet† (Mark Twain). The concept of copyright in the United States has a large history. The first form of copyright in the United States stems from Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 of the U.S. Constitution in the year 1787, where â€Å"Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. These â€Å"exclusive rights† were originally extremely limited, as the first Copyright Act of 1790 only applied to maps, charts, and books. As time has advanced, copyright practices in the United States have undergone several reforms, among the most recent being the infamous Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998. Said act updated United States law to the requirements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), such as placing limitations on the liability of online service providers for copyright violations made by users. The act, however, has been a subject of controversy in recent times, as some content creators abuse it to control access to their content. This is accomplished through methods such as copyright trolling, in which the copyright holder produces works solely for the purpose of litigation rather than distribution. Oftentimes, these practices are thought to be a violation of fair use, which enables copyrighted work to be used withoutShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Concerning The Ownership Of General Knowledge By Copyright, Trademarks, And Patents950 Words   |  4 PagesVincent Allard English 10th Ms. Rachuy 05/05/2016 The Issue Concerning the Ownership of General knowledge by Copyright, Trademarks, and Patents. Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents have too much overreaching and unmonitored power of subjects that could be considered as general knowledge from the public and that we need new laws to help monitor and protect others rights. In the modern age the internet has become a daily part of our lives and yet some people claim rights to things that we as peopleRead MoreThe Purpose Of Copyright Laws1130 Words   |  5 PagesThe purpose of copyright laws in modern society, as confirmed by Darrell Panethiere (2005) is to protect the creative rights of â€Å"authors, performers, publishers, broadcasters, and many others whose livelihoods depend upon the recognition of rights† (p. 1, par. 1) for their intellectual properties. In the contemporary business world, most companies that sell products of some kind depend on other firms for the design, production, and distribution of the product to make it available for selling. SuchRead MoreThe Ethical Issues Of Payola1392 Words   |  6 Page sbits and pieces of other songs. At the outset, these samples were not approved by the original artist and in most cases went unnoticed – until hip-hop became profitable. Once there was money in the genre, the copyright holders of the original source material began to sue producers for copyright infringement. The landmark case that changed the face of hip-hop, from a sampling free-for-all into a pay to play environment, was the 1991 U.S. District Court case, Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner BrosRead MoreThe Digital Millennium Copyright Act1608 Words   |  7 PagesFailure to Protect and Abuses of the Section 1201 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Most laws are passed by the congress with intent to either limit the government s power or to benefit the country and it s people. This was the thought behind the ill fated and commonly criticized The DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act). Its purpose, similar to its predecessor, the Copyright Act itself, was to protect the copyright owners from the big scary pirates, thus protecting their profits and live-hoodRead MoreEducation and the World Citizen1073 Words   |  5 PagesSocrates, was to provoke people into thinking for themselves, rather than to teach them anything they did not already know. Nussbaum proves this to be true when she tells us about the University of Chicago and how the chain-link fence out back of the law school parking lot marks the line between the university campus and the impoverished black community that surrounds it. (4)Nussbaum, being a philosopher, a scholar, a teacher, as well as a student, appears more than sufficiently equipped to deal withRead Mo reEssay Totalitarian Agriculture1003 Words   |  5 Pagesculture was expanded so much so that it became the culture that each of us participated in today. All of this equals growth at an exponential rate. Why not totalitarian agriculture? Totalitarian agriculture is against the laws of nature. Surely it is not within the laws of nature to hunt down your competitors and destroy them as well as their access to food. The natural order of things in nature when it comes to food competition is exactly that: compete, but do not wage war. The very nature ofRead MoreHistory of YouTube.com Essay examples1575 Words   |  7 Pagespopularity there came other issues involving copyright infringements by the music industry. Google set aside 200 million for law suits against YouTube. It had become controversial. Viacom asked federal court to order YouTube to remove videos based in infringement of copyright. Viacom sued for one million dollars. The federal courts have had to review the Copyright act due to YouTube, yet YouTube states that it is protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act which states that by removing materialRead MoreThe Life of Johannes Kepler Essay1952 Words   |  8 Pagescollection of astronomical obse rvations. After years of studying these observations, Kepler realized that his previous thought about planetary motion were wrong, and he came up with his three laws of planetary motion. Unfortunately, he did not have a unifying theory for these laws. This had to until Newton formulated his laws of gravity and motion. PLATONIC SOLIDS A platonic solid is a solid having similar, regular polygonal faces. There are five Platonic solids: the icosahedron, tetrahedron, octahedronRead MoreEssay On Legal Framework1224 Words   |  5 PagesLEGAL FRAMEWORK Direction alludes to manage making movement by governments and the courts. Constitutions, parliamentary laws, subordinate enactment, orders, orders, standards,licenses, plans, codes, and even a few types of regulatory direction would all be able to be considered control. Canada, as other progressed industrialized nations, has through the span of a century and a half developed a detailed and complex administrative framework to give Canadians an extensive variety of key administrationsRead MoreThe Economy and Health in Slovenia Essay1528 Words   |  7 Pagessimplistic allowing for people to buy and sell in more places, which would allow for a flourishing economy. Slovenia is an incredibly safe country for all, they have an incredibly low crime rate, and can be seen as one of the safest countries on the planet. Recently over the past 3 years, all of that is slowly changing; there has been a spike in crime, but nothing major at all. Slovenia is still a very safe country, as America is. In terms of Freedom from corruption, Slovenia is ranked 61st. Corruption

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Integrated Marketing Communications Free Essays

string(467) " impractical to develop a regression measure of IMC for BMW cars in this country due to the availability of various types of IMC tools through which the customer can be reached such as direct marketing, personal selling, event sponsorship, media advertising, sales promotions, and the internet limiting the application of this tool since it is hard to tell how each of these factors affect the customers behaviour in an integrated form \(BMW Group in the UK, 2013\)\." Abstract In less than 20 years, IMC has spread all over the world and has become the most accepted business practice. IMC has transformed how communication marketing takes place. The complexities of application of IMC lie in the inability to evaluate the programs effectively. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrated Marketing Communications or any similar topic only for you Order Now Kitchen, Kim and Schultz (2008) argue that this problem will negatively impact on the application and further development of IMC. Several theories have been suggested in an effort of developing an integrated approach to measuring IMC. Some of these theories include measurement of absolute IMC effect, regression models, and IMC measurement over time. Analysis of these arguments, it is evident that none of them provide an effective way of measuring UMC due to the complexities that result from the interactions between different IMC tools. As much as this argument is founded based on the complexities that arise when trying to develop an effective way of evaluating IMC, it is still one of the most current topics that are under scrutiny providing enough data that prove its effectiveness. More so, the measurement of the tools of IMC independently provides data that can be used in the evaluation of IMC. Therefore, this paper concludes that the various measures of the IMC tools is substantive enough to provide a measure and hence determine the effectiveness of IMC 1.0 Introduction The surfacing of IMC is the most important illustration of development that has been realized in the marketing discipline (Kitchen, Kim Schultz, 2008). The increased openness in the world economy has fostered increased competition, which has directly affected the thinking and decision making within many organizations. The idea of integrated marketing was developed around twenty years ago when professionals and academicians were developing an approach that is realistic enough to avail a competitive strategic position within an organization. The onset of 1990s witnessed the advancement of IMC as a hot topic in analysing marketing strategy of many organizations (Belch Belch, 2004). As much as IMC has advanced as a marketing strategy, Kitchen, Kim and Schultz (2008) argue that, the effectiveness and hence further development of IMC is undermined by the lack of evidence on evaluation or measurement of the IMC. This paper will critically analyse this argument to ascertain the credibility of the conclusion that was derived from the above authors’ study. 2.0 Integrated Marketing Communication as a Theory As earlier mentioned the concept of IMC is still new, and most of the theories that explain its application are still under development and scrutiny. When the concept of IMC was first introduced, marketing and advertising theorists were in favour of the concept, believing that it offered advantages for both fields. On the other hand, educators in public relations were out rightly opposed to the concept (Reid, 2005). A good number of scholars in the public relations field argued that not only was IMC a form of imperialism in marketing, but also an encroachment (Belch Belch, 2004). This notion was developed since IMC perceived advertisement as part of marketing utility while public relations as a management function. This argument continued and resulted in several research studies being conducted in the analysis of IMC. Measurement of IMC has been quite challenging with some authors agreeing with the statement that there are no credible measurement techniques for IMC, while others sug gesting that it is quite possible to measure IMC effectively. The lack of effective and acceptable measurement of IMC programs is a major area of criticism. Several authors have argued that most measurements that are applied in the measurement of IMC programs are based on indirect measurements through measurement of the output of the programs rather than measuring the outcomes of communication activities in marketing, which provides a better understanding of the effects of measurement. Schultz and Kitchen (2000) argued that it is impossible to measure many marketing activities directly. More so, it is even more complex to ascertain the value and impacts of communication effects. Therefore, measurability as a problem affects both all marketing communication activities and IMC programs. To fully integrate this concept of un-measurability of IMC, this paper analyses the available theories that provide measures for measuring IMC. 2.1 Measuring absolute IMC Effect This is one of the main theories that try to support the argument that IMC is measurable. However, the nature of the marketing environment limits the measurability of IMC. This is because of the openness of the marketing environment to competing effects and a variety of stimuli from around the globe. Therefore, measuring the true effect of IMC is only achievable in a closed environment such as a laboratory. This involves participants in an experiment that has a controlled group of participants to be able to measure the effects of different IMC programs. 2.2 Regression Models in measuring IMC This is also a major postulate that tries to provide an applicable measure for IMC. This is the most frequently approach used in the measurement of IMC. Lee and Park (2007) are credited for developing a multidimensional tool for measuring IMC. This tool was designed based on regression analysis for validating the scale. On the other hand, Reid (2005) analysed the link between brand outcomes and IMC process. The application of multiple regression analysis enabled the researcher to analyse the effects of marketing variables effectively that are affected by the level of IMC consistency within an organization. However, the problem of the application of regression analysis applied to IMC limits the measurements to a specific channel of marketing communication. IMC involves integration of diverse ways of marketing communication, which limits the practicability of regression analysis as a means of measurement. This is so since multicollinearity is inevitable in IMC while unsupported by regr ession analysis. For instance, if a regression analysis measure of sales and brand value of a product such as BMW cars in the UK is developed, the risk of multicollinearity is inevitable due to the diverse communication channels applied in IMC (Reid, 2005). Therefore, it is impractical to develop a regression measure of IMC for BMW cars in this country due to the availability of various types of IMC tools through which the customer can be reached such as direct marketing, personal selling, event sponsorship, media advertising, sales promotions, and the internet limiting the application of this tool since it is hard to tell how each of these factors affect the customers behaviour in an integrated form (BMW Group in the UK, 2013). You read "Integrated Marketing Communications" in category "Essay examples" 2.3 Measurement of IMC over Time The interlinks in the marketing communication results in a circular process. It is obvious that behaviour influences attitudes and vice versa. For instance, a consumer’s positive familiarity with a brand may force the customer to change the attitude and previous networks or strengthen the positive network that was in existence. Therefore, IMC is based on a long-term synchronization of promotions and messages (Katrandjiev, 2000). IMC is distinguished from the other marketing activities in that it influences the behaviour of the target groups. This happens since IMC is planned, created, implemented and assessed through analysis of consumer behaviour in terms of current and future prospects of purchasing a product or a service. The application of a longitudinal study provides an effective measure for IMC. Since a time factor is a necessity in measuring IMC, accommodation of time as a factor has high chances of providing acceptable and practical results. To develop a measure of ef fectiveness of IMC a comparison between it and the traditional marketing communication (TMC) is necessary. Practicability of this measure in the business world is complex since it is complex to apply both TMC and IMC in order to develop the effectiveness of IMC in a specific organization. Several theories have been developed in the recent past in an attempt to develop the concept of IMC (Duncan, 2002; Schultz, Tannenbaum and Lauterborn, 1993, p.16). However, most of the developmental theories are founded on explanations involving advantages, definitions and acceptance. The main problem facing IMC is the measure of its effectiveness. Several approaches to providing metrics that can be used for measuring IMC have been developed. Many of the theories of measurement of IMC are developed based on the work conducted by Schultz and his colleagues. They conducted a study in 1993, which concluded that the IMC’s main objective is to create communication platforms that support the current purchasing capabilities of all customers or even change future behavioural prospects. Shultz et al concluded that the process of measuring IMC should involve measurement of all behavioural aspects of the customer that is in proximity to the actual acquisition behaviour as possible, and the process of measurement should be developed as part of the planning process. However, the authors did not succeed to measure IMC effectively due to the approach they adopted that measurement focused on output as earlier discussed. Kitchen and Schultz (1999) and Shultz et al (1993) advocated for the use of outside-in planning advance as a way of dealing with the challenges of measuring IMC. This process is designed to be initiated at the customers tracking backward based on the decision to purchase, so as to determine the point where the customer made the decision to purchase the product or service. This approach requires an utmost attention on the customer and the various opportunities where purchase message is delivered to them during the process. Analysis of the impacts of different messages at different points provides an effective way of measuring the impact and hence IMC. Some of the IMC tools through which the customer can be reached are the internet, sales promotions, media advertising, event sponsorship, personal selling, and direct marketing. Since IMC deals with integration, the tools should be monitored so as to determine the impact of the integrated system on consumer behaviour. Developing a tool to measure the integration is quite complex. For instance, it is impossible to measure the absolute IMC effect of coca cola products in the UK due to various competing effects such as price, brands, a variety of promotional strategies, huge number of advertising, as well as the effects of communication which it intertwined between the consumers and the suppliers (Coca Cola, 2013). These results to a very complicated marketing effect that is integrated with cases such as sales promotions affecting brand as well as sales and vice versa. Developing a measure that can integrate these factors is very complex and can only be achieved if conducted individually limiting on determining the effect of integration. 3.0 IMC is Measurable From the analysis above it is obvious that direct measurement of IMC is quite challenging, but there are various ways in which other elements of IMC can be measured and the resultant normalization of the measure be used as a general measure of IMC. Therefore, measurement of IMC is not as ineffective as the argument presented to validate it from derailed development. To fully comprehend this argument, consideration of the effects of various tools of IMC interact and the impacts. This will provide an insight into how various IMC tools can be used in the measurement of the impact and effectiveness of IMC. Therefore, this can be used to plan, execute, and evaluate any IMC program. 3.1 Effects of Advertising Most theories around advertising as IMC tools revolve around how customers perceive advertising messages. The focus of advertising effect is based on measuring the immediate response to the message as a cognitive reaction form of persuasion (Wright, 1980) and significance accessibility model (Baker and Lutz, 2000). Of most significance is the analysis of the effect of advertising over a prolonged period of time. The analysis of the effects of advertising is illustrated in the response hierarchy model (Vaughn, 1980). Therefore, by application of these models, advertising as an IMC tool can be measured effectively and applied in the interpretation of the effect of IMC programs in an organization. 3.2 Sales Promotion Effects In application, promotion of sales accounts for an equal or sometimes even larger budget as advertisements and yet very little has been done regarding measuring the impact of direct sales promotions as an IMC tool (Belch and Belch, 2004). The current marketing field has witnessed increased dependence on direct sales promotions as a marketing tool. This has resulted in increased demand for development of effective tools for quantifying and hence measuring the IMC tool (Neslin, 2002). Sales promotion’s impact is measured by analysing the impact on sales. Most marketers perceive direct sales promotion as a catalyst that increases sales. This limits many marketers to the analysis of the short-term impact of sales promotions on sales. However, sales promotions can also be used in the development of the brand image by influencing consumers’ purchase intentions, attitudes, image, and beliefs. For instance, the difference between brand-building or franchise sales promotions and non-franchise sales promotions can well be analysed by developing a measure for sales promotion (Spethman, 1998). This develops an effective tool for measuring how customers maximize on their efficiency and utility in economizing their purchases. 3.3 Interactive communication effects This is the fastest growing tool of IMC. The interactive media allow for a two-way traffic communication mechanism. This allows consumers to participate in the product or service development. Through interactive media, consumers become active participants in the marketing process. An integrative processing model developed by Rodgers and Thorson (2000) analyses how consumers perceive online advertisement processes. This tool provides data that can be used in quantifying the measure of online advertisement, which can in turn be used as a tool for measuring IMC programs even in an integrated model. For instance, the time consumers spend online can be used in the assessment of the level of consumer interests and participation in online advertisements. The application of traditional advertisement measurement tools can enhance the process of measuring the online advertisements. This approach limits but does not completely hinder the measurement of the impact of interactive media to the con sumer behaviour. 3.4 Synergistic Effects To comprehend the measure of IMC fully, consideration of the effects of multiple marketing tools is essential. This is because most consumers interact with more than one marketing tool before reaching the final decision. According to Naik and Raman (2003), IMC approach is distinguished from the conventional one because IMC analyses the impact of each marketing medium on other mediums. This results to the combined effect of various marketing tools. The development of a measure of Synergistic effects of the marketing tools provides an effective avenue for developing an acceptable measure for IMC programs and their impacts. To highlight on the success of measuring IMC by developing measures for the different IMC tool, this paper will analyse its application at Red Robin, a leading Burger producer in the USA. The success of this company is as a result of application integrated marketing communication in reaching out to its customers. The company applies both online and offline marketing tools this has made it reach most of its consumers as well as attract new customers due to the effectiveness of the IMC tool applied. According to the company’s chief marketing officer, the success of the IMC is entrenched in the application of measurable tools such as advertising, sales promotion, and interactive communication (Red Robin, 2013). With the application of consumer driven marketing strategies, the company has successfully managed to be competitive. 4.0 Conclusion The future of planning and execution of marketing is fully dependent on the IMC approach. The current rate at which IMC is being analysed has proved to be substantive enough to overcome the threat of reduced application of IMC due to its complexities in terms of evaluation. This paper has analysed the most applicable measures for measuring IMC identifying the possible impracticality of the measures. The conclusion is that there is no one single measure that can provide effective IMC effectiveness evaluation. However, its effectiveness can be measured by analysing IMC tools and effects of application of IMC programs as a result of specific tools. The argument presented by Kitchen, Kim and Schultz over the possibility of the hindrances of development of IMC due to lack of measures for evaluating it, is disputable. It is possible to measure the impact of IMC by observing specific tools and quantifying the results by integrating and hence develop a Synergistic effect measure of IMC tools . The continued study and experimentation of IMC will enable it to continue to develop as it poses a positive future as an effective marketing communication tools. The theories have provided information on how the IMC concept has quickly undergone a transformation and acceptability due to the success witnessed in organizations where IMC is applied as a marketing communication tool. References Belch, G. E. Belch, M. A., 2004. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective, (5th Edn), New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin. Baker, W. E. Lutz, R. J., 2000. An Empirical Test of an Updated Relevance-Accessibility Model of Advertising Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 1-15. BMW Group in the UK, 2013, About Us. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from Coca Cola, 2013. About Us. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Duncan, T., 2002. IMC: Using Advertising and Promotion to Build Brands, New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin. Lee, D.H. Park, C.W., 2007. What is ‘neuromarketing’A Discussion and Agenda for Future Research International, Journal of Psychophysiology 63, 199-204. Kitchen, P.J, Kim, I. Schultz, D.E., 2008. Integrated Marketing Communications: Practice Leads Theory, Journal of Advertising Research, 48(4), 531-546. Kitchen, P. J. Schultz, D. E., 1999. A Multi-Country Comparison of the Drive for IMC, Journal of Advertising Research, 39(1), 21-38. Katrandjiev, H.I., 2000. Some Aspects of Measuring Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Series, Economics and Organization, 1(8), 87-93. Neslin, S. A., 2002. Sales Promotion, Cambridge MA: Marketing Science Institute. Naik, P. A. Raman, K., 2003. Understanding the Impact of Synergy in Multimedia Comparisons, Journal of Marketing Research, 60, 375-388. Rodgers, S. Thorson, E. 2000. The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1 (1), 1-23. Reid, M., 2005. Performance Auditing of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMV) Actions and Outcomes, Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 41-54 Red Robin, 2013. About Us. Retrieved July 30, 2013, from Schultz, D Kitchen, P. 2000. A Response to ‘Theoretical Concept or Management Fashion?† Journal of Advertising Research, 40(5), 17-21. Schultz, D., Tannenbaum, S. Lauterborn, R. 1993. Integrated Marketing Communications: Pulling It Together and Making It Work, Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books. Spethman, B., 1998. Is Advertising Dead?† PROMO, 1, 32-36 Vaughn, R. 1980. How Advertising Works: A Planning Model. Journal of Advertising Research, 20(5), 27-33. Wright, P. 1980. Message Evoked Thoughts, Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations. Journal of Consumer Research, 7, 151-75. How to cite Integrated Marketing Communications, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Digital Strategy and Promotion - Digital Marketing free essay sample

The Relationship between Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in an Information Society [pic] Problem Definition: Currently travelers who are intended to travel International through United Airlines have no particular idea in organizing their travel time at the target location. World is developing day by day same like Digital users. Even though we have separate loyal customers for United Airlines, most among them are Digital users in this current environment. The travelers are reaching the helpdesk quite often enquiring flight status, rental car and hotel in the target location.United has a digital business strategy to attract travelers with good customer service, but we see United doesn’t have a social networking app to save their travelers time to accommodate and plan their travel. The main problem I see getting access to the travel/location Information is lack of social networking between the travelers who used United. For example: I am traveling to China, I have never been. We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Strategy and Promotion Digital Marketing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I have no idea on etiquette tips, weather, clothing advice and fashion tips for where you are headed, restaurants and a connection to a writers board about that particular destination etc.I have to login to different websites to post the questions, read blogs, verify ratings, gather other information which is needed is a critical path before you travel which is very time consuming and confusing though. Considering the outputs, collecting the printouts for all these Information and carrying them is a kind of mess. It is easy for a traveler to get all these data from one-stop- shop(Which is a Travelbug app) by loging onto app/site and there it houses People can leave opinions about all things they discovered and tried while on vacation. Users can post questions etc.Basically we are referring same like taking a travel zoo, urban spoon, twitter and putting it into a social site specifically for travelers. You can have a personal page that can be viewed by others (if you allow it) and it shows all the places you have visited in the world. This page will also let you post travel pictures as well. The main theme to refer this Travelbug app is to make traveler feel comfortable while travelling with United and to get all his Information what traveler feels to gather before he checks-in, and make his time utilized in a effective manner and productive.Solution Explanation: Due to the lot of A free mobile phone social networking site (downloaded as app on phone or sign up online) that acts as a social networking site for travelers- it must be activated through the airline site. If you sign up for the site / app through United airlines, the site will automatically have your name, age, gender and where you are going†¦it will house your travel info and then pull the apps of choosing from there. This app will also be a housing app for retailers to promote and advertise to travelers BUT the travelers pick the things they are interested in.Initially, when I set up my travelbug account I choose any and everything I am interested in (and you can change these at any time) so whenever I travel anywhere and my flight is confirmed my page will show items relating to that destination. The social aspect of this is that it acts like a facebook but specifically for travel. Therefore you can meet people and read their pages and what they have to say about the places they have been. You can comment on their posts and ask questions etc.The app will have the feasibility on Retail, etiquette tips, money exchange rates, food, culture information, random facts, history, crime, stay-safe tips, hotel information, flight check-in, flight updates, weather, and world map to document where you have visited, Historical Places to visit near the place where you are flying, concert planner, Casinos If any and a link to buy tickets for local sports (football, Hockey, Cricket .. ) in their individual countries. Friends can click on your spot on the map where you have been before and it goes to the page regarding that destination and can read about your experience or opinions (Ex:Ovi Maps- Face book APP) Or it can show your ratings on restaurants and hotels in that area. In essence, you can meet and interact with people all over the world. While you register to this app it provides 50% discount coupons for the first time users in all United tie ups like Hertz, Avis, The Hilton and Mariott. These can be used excluding the corporate discounts (If any applicable for the Individual).Travelbug is linked with CNN,CSI and NDTV social media where user can access the current affairs around the world with out any delay. Ex: If a user is travelling from USA to India (Chennai) for the first time on business/vacation, he is not really sure how the culture is and how people are? Is Chennai safe to roam around in the evenings alone; Is it safe to be at sea shore alone? How is the crime rate in that city? How the climate is? (Specifies in degrees Centigrade) which makes user to decide the kind of dress needs to be worn.Any sports events happening on the particular week the user is travelling. The members of this travelbug who have already visited Chennai can/would provide their feedback on the restaurants, location and answers to your questions. Travelbug is launched to provide a full fledge Information in one spot where traveler should be comfortable using every time when he plans to travel to any place around the world. Travelbug will be very user friendly in making the traveler to decide where to go and where not and make him to plan in advance which in turn makes his/her travel effective and productive.Explanation the difference between the strategy and Tactics: Tactics and strategy are always relative to one another, and together they bridge the gap between ends and means. The company that clearly understands that difference is the business that will be the most successful, the most durable and the most profitable. Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat. Sun Tzu 1. Strategy means a global plan to reach a long-term goal, and is taken from a Greek word that means army leadership.Tactics, on the other hand, means a short term plan or behavior and comes from a Greek word that means science of arrangement (of an army). Tactics are the actual ways in which the strategies are executed. One uses tactics (little tricks) in a strategy (long-term plan). If the company is not careful, tactics may end up being simply quick fixes that can bring short term gain, but they will not lead to long-term success unless rigorously applied; and they must be part of an overall plan for success.Therefore, it is critical to look at each tactic from the standpoint of what it will do to achieve your overall strategy. Tactics are specifically created and selected to reach particular and measurable objectives. 2. A strategy is an idea†¦ A conceptualization of how the goal could be achieved. Like â€Å"Divide and Conquer. † Another possible war strategy would be â€Å"Nuke ‘Em. † (They call them Strategic Nuclear Weapons because they pretty much eliminate the need for any further tactics. ) A tactic is an action you take to execute the strategy.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Women and Social Institutions an Example by

Women and Social Institutions Whenever the subject of gender issues surfaces, the issue regarding women and their struggle for womens rights is inevitably discussed. The current foundations of gender equality are the product of the long struggle of gender groups who fought for parity rights. History reveals the hardships and sacrifices of people, especially of women, in attaining gender parity. Need essay sample on "Women and Social Institutions" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Gender equality promotes the fair participation of men and women in formulating significant decisions in male dominated fields like economics and politics. One of its aims is to reduce the widening gap between men and women in terms of access and control of various resources and benefits that are achieved through development. Until now, women are still having difficulty in establishing their rightful place in the society. And as such, equality between men and women has not been fully achieved yet. The media is one of the channels responsible for promoting the male and female stereotypical roles. Media comes in various forms, such as TV, radio, newspaper, magazines and ads. Due to its wide coverage and the large number of audiences it could reach, the media is able to disseminate information in no time. However, some of this information may be distorted, including the visual representations of sex and gender. It is evident that the media, specifically in the advertising field, shows the wrong depiction of women in the contemporary society as it showcases the traditional roles of women of the conventional society. Students Usually Tell EssayLab professionals:Who wants to write assignment for me?Specialists suggest:Don't Waste Your TimeWebsite To Help Write An Essay Pay For Essay Cheap Custom Essay Reviews Cheap Essay Writing In advertisements, women are often portrayed as sex objects. Luring the consumers to purchase a product by using women is a disturbing presentation utilized by the media. Big business firms and companies use women as accessories mostly in men products, such as liquors, cigarettes and cars. Scantily clad women can be mostly seen in these types of advertisements. The women are often showed in bikinis and sometimes topless, which is both degrading and humiliating. The negative depictions of women connote the downgrading perception of people towards womens capabilities and potentials (Hong). Women also portray this same role in some television programs. Some of the roles played by women in such programs are valued not because of their inherent capabilities and potentials, but rather for their sexy and sultry bodies. This is also the case in music or songs, especially the hip-hop and rap songs that sometimes brag on how they treated the women or get a woman to have sex with them. These issues are very disturbing because it spurs considerable concern from various feminist groups. One of the undesirable implications of the negative depictions of women is the increase in sexual activity and violence among people. Some studies show that exposure to media showcasing women in humiliating and embarrassing portrayals, even if the content is not really violent or sexual in nature, increases the violent behavior of men towards women (Lukas). In addition to the effects of these ads on sexual activity and violence, Tygarts study shows that they also influence the way women perceive their own body. After viewing ads that present women as sex objects, it leaves an impact on womens perception and self-concept. Women tend to be conscious about their figure and appearance when they see thin models that are promoting various market products. As these ads mostly sell products for men, they form this belief that men like thinner girls. Consequently, they begin to dislike their own body, although there is nothing wrong with it. These kinds of ads also have a significant implication on the way people view themselves and others, especially the women, in terms of appearance (Tygart). Works Cited Hong, Evelyne. October 1995. Women as Consumers and Producers in the World Market. Third World Rusurgence. 13 November 2008 Lukas, Scott A. 2002. Woman as Sex Object. The Gender Ads Project. 13 November 2008 Tygart, Desiree. n.d. Depicting Women as Sex Objects in Television Advertising: Effects on Body Dissatisfaction. Eastern Kentucky University. 13 November 2008

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on How To Use CPR

How To Use CPR The air we breathe in travels to our lungs where oxygen is picked up by our blood and then pumped by the heart to our tissue and organs. When a person experience cardiac arrest whether due to heart failure in adults and the elderly or an injury such as near drowning, electrocution or severe trauma in a person the heart goes from a normal beat to an arrhythmic pattern called ventricular fibrillation, and eventually ceases to beat altogether. This prevents oxygen from circulating throughout the body, rapidly killing cells and tissue. Invented in 1960 by the American Heart Association, CARDIO ( Heart), PULMONARY (Lung), RESUSCITATION (Revive, Revitalize) serves as an artificial heartbeat and an artificial respirator. Tonight you will learn the A-B-C method for performing CPR. According to the American Heart Association there guidelines dictate that CPR is performed on any person over the age of 8. Before you start any rescue efforts, you must remember to check the victim for responsiveness. If there is no response, immediately dial 911 and check for â€Å"A† the airway. If the victim is unconscious and is unresponsive, you need to make sure that his airway is clear of any obstructions. The breaths may be faint and shallow so look, listen, and feel for any signs of breathing. If you determine that the victim is not breathing, then something may be blocking his air passage. The tongue is the most common airway obstruction in an unconscious person. This is when you need to reposition there head. After checking the airway and the person is still not breathing on his own and the airway has been cleared, you will have to assist him with â€Å"B† breathing. With the victim’s airway clear of any obstructions, gently support his chin so as to keep it lifted up and the head tilted back. Pinch his nose with your fingertips to prevent air from escaping once you begin to ventilate and place your mouth over the victim’s... Free Essays on How To Use CPR Free Essays on How To Use CPR How To Use CPR The air we breathe in travels to our lungs where oxygen is picked up by our blood and then pumped by the heart to our tissue and organs. When a person experience cardiac arrest whether due to heart failure in adults and the elderly or an injury such as near drowning, electrocution or severe trauma in a person the heart goes from a normal beat to an arrhythmic pattern called ventricular fibrillation, and eventually ceases to beat altogether. This prevents oxygen from circulating throughout the body, rapidly killing cells and tissue. Invented in 1960 by the American Heart Association, CARDIO ( Heart), PULMONARY (Lung), RESUSCITATION (Revive, Revitalize) serves as an artificial heartbeat and an artificial respirator. Tonight you will learn the A-B-C method for performing CPR. According to the American Heart Association there guidelines dictate that CPR is performed on any person over the age of 8. Before you start any rescue efforts, you must remember to check the victim for responsiveness. If there is no response, immediately dial 911 and check for â€Å"A† the airway. If the victim is unconscious and is unresponsive, you need to make sure that his airway is clear of any obstructions. The breaths may be faint and shallow so look, listen, and feel for any signs of breathing. If you determine that the victim is not breathing, then something may be blocking his air passage. The tongue is the most common airway obstruction in an unconscious person. This is when you need to reposition there head. After checking the airway and the person is still not breathing on his own and the airway has been cleared, you will have to assist him with â€Å"B† breathing. With the victim’s airway clear of any obstructions, gently support his chin so as to keep it lifted up and the head tilted back. Pinch his nose with your fingertips to prevent air from escaping once you begin to ventilate and place your mouth over the victim’s...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Challenges women face moving up to executive positions Research Paper

Challenges women face moving up to executive positions - Research Paper Example ansparent barrier that [keeps] women from rising above a certain level in organizations† (Sools, van Engen and Baerveldt, 2003) the glass ceiling is often blamed for the phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to explore the careers of Midwestern women who hold prominent positions in their respective industries to understand the progression of their careers and the obstacles they faced during. This study attempts to research and answer two questions: a) What challenges have women faced in the past 30 years? b) What opportunities for women have developed in the past 30 years? This research paper is limited to the information gained by interviewing two Midwestern female executives; the secondary data collected is based around that information. The time-frame allotted for the research also restricted a more extensive study. This research has allowed me to study this topic in great detail. However, it is based on my own understanding of the research materials and is subject to my inexperience. The conclusions drawn are intended to be my opinion and in no way expected to be the final word on this evolving subject matter. Furthermore, the topic is very sensitive and susceptible to bias and there may be unintentional proclivity towards one way of thinking. That said, this paper should be taken in the educational purpose intended and should be used as basis for further research. For the primary research, raw data was collected by way of conducting two interviews. The candidates were selected based on their years of experience, career progression and expertise. Each of these women, belonging to two very different fields, started from the very rudimentary department and progressed through the ranks to reach the level they are at today. I initially got in touch with them via email, sharing my purpose and questions of study and scheduled interview time and location. I preferred meeting them face-to-face for a more thorough interview and to have a better understanding.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Discussion Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 18

Discussion Questions - Assignment Example For instance, if the government is gaining popularity due to youth employment policies, it likely that they would be re-elected back to office if they maintain the current and existing youth employment programme. It should be used in economic projections and political considerations when trying to gauge the direction of the flow of events as to whether the country is growing or not. Forecast refers to estimation about a future event. This is to say that it does not rely on the existing or current facts because the things or set of conditions that would determine such occurrence do not depend on the present happenings. For instance, the weather report is an example of a forecast mechanism. In principle, it does not matter that it is raining in the current time, in the next two days it may be a sunny day. Thus, future happening would be informed by future occurrences and happenings. Good collection strategy ought to encompass ability and impetus to retain the relationship and the affair that existed prior to the collection. This is to say that both parties should feel respected, satisfied and convinced about the eventual outcome of the collection process. In the human process and cycles, it may be emotional to force or to coerce a person say a friend to abide by the terms of the collection agreement. It would then mean and imply that the collector would be hurt because he or she would be forced to compromise his or her agreement and stance so as to accommodate the family ties or relationship or friendship. Thus, so as to realize the maximum and optimum collection points and strategies, it would be proper and imperative for the collector to engage a third party who would be neutral and new to all the parties involved. It would thus be safe to use services of a collection agency which would make sure there are no emotional involvements for any of the parties

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Does Music Have Any Effects On The Brain?

Does Music Have Any Effects On The Brain? Music can have a very strong influence; is it strong enough to affect your brain? Music is an art of sound that expresses ideas and emotions through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and colour. The power and influence of music on individuals is a psychological process involving the human ears, body, brain, and nervous system. Besides its pleasing effects to the ears, it has been established that music can have an influence on our emotional state of being. People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. In recent years, however, a question has been raised with regards to music and its effects on the brain: Does listening to music help improve our physical and mental abilities? Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (the most popular American Poet in the 19th century, 1807-1882) wrote Music is the universal language of mankind. It brings us together as a society and unites people of different cultural backgrounds. It is a very important element which can be used for many purposes such as entertainment, sleeping aid, pain relief, relaxation tool, eliminate stress, emotional purposes, provide means of self-expression, aid develop the skills necessary at workplace, home or general environment and so much more. It is also used for special occasions such as funerals, weddings, graduations, soldiers marching off to war, sporting events, prayer, romantic dinners and parties. Music is mostly used in these types of events because it has the influence to change our atmosphere and provide us with a sense of pleasure, comfort and happiness. It also enhances teamwork skills and discipline in churches and in bands where all team members involvement and participation is required to produce a good song. Research shows that certain types of music such as classical music, yoga music or nature music creates a calming effect on us which helps reduce our heart rate. This may enable us conquer anxiety and gain self confidence. Music can help us communicate with each other when languages are different. Before the invention of mails and telephones, certain tribes use to contact each other with drumbeats. Sound travels at about 350 meters per second in dry air at 20 C (68 F) and this was quicker and efficient in getting a message across to each other in the Ancient times which required some skills and knowledge. There was a sender and a receiver who would interpret the me ssage to the Leader of the village. This was mostly practised in Africa and Asia and is still practised in some parts of the world. The drawbacks were messages could be interpreted wrongly by the receiver or conveyed wrongly by the sender which caused inconvenience. There are many uses and benefits of music which are yet to be discovered. In recent years, scientists have been astonished by the effects music has on children. Babies are mostly lulled to sleep with lullabies due to its known calming effects on the brain and body. Experiment has proven that introducing toddlers to good music genres such as classical at an early age enables them become more creative, increase their level of imagination and their ability to obtain and develop different skills in later life. During childhood we are all expected to learn nursery rhymes reason being music is known to be a kick-start to learning and known to offer long life benefits. Also as individuals we all need diversity in our lives to broaden our knowledge and develop strong relationships in life. On Sunday, 21 February 2010, one of the major British newspapers The Guardian, which has a certified average daily circulation of 358,844 copies, published an article on music and its power to shape a chil ds mind. (Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/music-has-the-power-to-shape-a-childs-mind-1905967.html).The article discusses some of the profound effects of music on the nervous system and encourages schools to make it a core subject. Schools which fail to make music a core subject are making a mistake, because it has advantages for the growing brain and would help all children, including those with dyslexia and autism, neuroscientist Professor Nina Kraus said. Professor Krauss team at North-western University in Chicago, Illinois, have shown that the nervous system responds to the acoustic properties of speech and music with sub-millisecond precision. The effectiveness with which the nervous system interprets sound patterns is linked to musical ability. Scientists have been amazed by some of effects of music can be have individuals. This has led to the establishment of a field of health care known as Music Therapy. Therapists use the benefits and positive effects of music to improve and maintain their patients emotional, physical, aesthetic, mental, social, and spiritual well being. Those who practice music therapy are finding it very useful and effective which enables them live a normal life. It is used to help patients with cancer, neurodevelopment disorders such as dementia, children with ADD and autism. A National Autistic Society spokeswoman explained how many children with autism respond well to music. It helps children in communication and interaction. It also creates a calming effect on the patients which enables them express some level of emotion. This has resulted in many patients overcoming certain illnesses. Hospitals are also beginning to use music and music therapy to help with pain management. In some hospital theatre s such as Bay Medical Center located in both Northeast Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (America), music is used to help ward off patients depression and ease muscle tension. Many patients reacted positively to especially classical music as it generated a comforting environment and calmed patients which enabled doctors progress during operations. However, it could be argued that music can be an addiction and if not constantly played to these patients could cause further depression in some cases. Scientist have conducted further research and found that music with a strong beat can stimulate brainwaves to resonate in sync with the beat, with faster beats bringing sharper concentration and more alert thinking to the listener. Slower music genre such as classical helps promote a relaxed and meditative state (source: http://www.brainskills.co.uk/MusicTherapy.html ). Over the years scientist have been looking at some other benefits music can offer. Athletes such as cyclist and marathon runners are known to find music very useful during training sessions. Most of these athletes consider music as a motivation and a relaxation tool which helps prepare the body and mind for a lengthy workout. There are believes that fast music can help athletes train faster and better during training, leading to a good workout. To determine the actual effects of music on the performance of athletes, Scientists at St. Scholastica College in Duluth, Minnesota conducted a test with six men and five women on a 15 minute treadmill at 5.5 mile per hour on each runner. The runners were categorised into a group of three. Group1 and 2 consisted of two males and two females and group 3 consisted of two males and one female. Group 1 were made to listen to a fast pace beat, group 2 were made to listen a slow beat and group 3 listened to no music. This was observed for 15 minutes and in the study, it was discovered that group 1 burned 10 extra calories over 15 minutes, an extra 40 calories per hour. This may seem a small gain but if practised constantly over just three hours a week, you may be capable of burning an extra 2 pounds of fat in the course of a year. This will help towards the individuals stamina and be of great advantage to his/her mental health. This research also suggested that music if combined with appropriate imagery can have either a calming effect on the individual during physical training which helps improve the cardiovascular system by maintaining adequate circulation of oxygenated blood around the vascular network of the body. However, there is no firm evidence that suggest that the tranquilising effects of music can promote better performances when athletes listen to the music before performing. The research, however, implies that listening to music during training sessions can certainly improve workout quality. (Effect of Up-Beat Mus ic on Endurance Performance, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, volume 27(5), Supplement, #853, p. S151, 1995 and The Impact of Music and Imagery on Physical Performance and Arousal: Studies of Coordination and Endurance, Journal of Sport Behaviour, volume 15(1), pages. 21-33, 1992) Music is mostly divided into genres and subgenres. Some of the main genres are Rock/Pop, Jazz, Hip hop, World, Nostalgia, Blues, Country, Easy Listening, Folk, Ethnic, Metal and other subgenres. Classical music is one of the oldest genres encircling a broad era from roughly 1750s to date (source: http://www.musiclessonsonline.co.uk/ClassicalMusic.html ). It has inspired and influenced other genres such as hip hop and RB. It is accepted by nearly every generation ever since its establishment. Researchers have come across some rather amazing benefits of classical music. It holds one of the largest listeners due to its calming effects which aid the mind and its ability to inspire its listeners. Amongst the results it was found that classical music has the ability to reduce crime. British Transport Police supplied classical music into London Underground stations in 2004 in some of the areas most dangerous neighbourhoods. After playing the music for six months, robberies were cut by 33 percent, staff assaults decreased by 25 percent and vandalism went down 37 percent. This was not the first time classical music had been used in preventing crime. In 2001, police in West Palm Beach, Florida installed a CD player and speakers on an abandoned building in a crime-ridden neighbourhood. After playing classical music mostly Mozart, Bach and Beethoven 24 hours a day for about three months, shootings, thefts, loiterers and drug deals decreased. (Source: http://hypography.com/forums/music-studies/14554-help-me-describe-why-music-education-5.html ) It was also discovered that if you walk into a store thats playing classical music you are likely to spend more. It is used as an instrument to get you to purchase more items, as consumer advocate and columnist Brian Vaszily entertainingly explains in How Stores are secretly using music to lure their customers. Music can help shape customers time perception, lower sales resistance and increase willingness to spend, says James Kellaris, a marketing professor at the University of Cincinnati. The complexity of classical music makes your brain work harder, causing it to overcompensate and make you feel like youve been in the store for less time than you actually have. Meanwhile, the music can make it more difficult for shoppers to use critical thinking in deciding whether to buy a product. The end result is spending more time in the store, buying more, and spending more money. (Source: http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/06/10/05/how_classical_music_can_reduce_crime_benefit_your_mood_and_ increase_your_spending.htm) All these events reveal that music can control our brains and has the capability to change our live style and behavioural patterns. Scientists wanted to prove scientifically how listening to a song helps develop the brain. Several experiments were conducted to find out which side of the brain is activated and improved when we listen to music. Mozarts music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. Reading activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, causes the brain to be more capable of processing information. According to The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, learning potential can be increased a minimum of five times by using this 60 beats per minute music. For example, the ancient Greeks sang their dramas because they understood how music could help them remember more easily. A renowned Bulgarian psychologist, Dr. George Lozanov, designed a way to teach foreign languages in a fraction of the normal learning time. Using his system, students could learn up to one half of the vocabulary and phrases for the whole school term (which amounts to almost 1,000 words or phrases) in one day. Along with this, the average retention rate of his students was 92%. Dr. Lozanovs system involved using certain classical music pieces from the baroque period which have around a 60 beats per minute pattern. He has proven that foreign languages can be learned with 85-100% efficiency in only thirty days by using these baroque pieces. His students had a recall accuracy rate of almost 100% even after not re viewing the material for four years. Music has also been used by Doctors to heal the human mind and also cure diseases. It has been used as a means of overcoming depression and reducing chronic pain. Music can be described as a tool used to capture and transmit emotions. One of the advantages of music is its ability to achieve more than one objective at a time. Elevating music can divert the mind and revive the soul. Sad and soulful music can offer solace, encourage and support psychological work and set free emotions. When exposed to the worlds dilemmas, some depend on drugs and others relate to music to help overcome these obstacles. Some of these dilemmas can lead to Depression which reduces the activities that occur in our brains and obstructs the minds capability to arrange and carry out responsibilities. The lack of the neurotransmitter and Serotonin leads to a depressed state of mind. It has been discovered by scientist that listening to music could help reduce chronic pain and depression by a quarter (http://www .sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060524123803.htm). People react to music in different ways. Singing and dancing to your favourite music is known to help increase the flow of serotonin in the brain by bringing about pleasure and excitement to the individual. I was greatly astonished by some of the experiments and discoveries mostly carried out by scientists, therapist and authors involving this topic. This influenced me to create a questionnaire to discover how music influences its listeners and what music genre generates the most effects. This is a summary table of the research questionnaire I created and handed out to a sample audience of fifty. To obtain varied and reliable results I decided on a 50 percent male audience and 50 percent female. i.e. Every bar in this graph is out of a 100%. This is because I designed my questionnaire so people could tick many answers for a particular question. I then counted the number of people who listened to music for entertainment purposes out of number of audience I have and multiplied it by 100%. This enabled me convert all my figures into percentage. I decided on a 50 sample audience as it is large enough to obtain varied results, to help structure my graph and in order not to obtain decimal figures when converting to percentage. This was prepared to achieve reliable results. The data also indicates that 46 (92%) of the sample audience listen to more than 1 type of music. This proves that music is universal and its effects are not limited to one genre of music. As seen in the graph 82% of my sample audience listened to music for entertainment purposes. This proves that music provides stimulation and entertainment at the most fundamental level. 60% of my sample audience listened to music to help eliminate stress. This shows that music helps takes your mind temporally away from problems and it has the effect of eliminating tension from the mind. 30% of my audience listen to music for emotional purposes. This proves that music can help provide solace to its listeners. Four of my sample audience listened to music whilst studying and two suggested it helped improve their grades at school. Finally one person suggested it helped them gain confidence. My questionnaire also generated a link between music for entertainment purposes and stress elevation. Majority of my sample audience who listened to music for entertainment purposes also suggested it helped in eliminating stress. As shown in figure 2 above, modern music genres such as Hip hop and Rock/Pop is the most listened to probably due to its relatable lyrics. An analysis of the data by age groups also shows that 71% of the under 18s age group listen to music for entertainment purposes. 91% of the 18-21 age group that is 10 out of 11 people also listened to music for entertainment purposes. Of the 22 years and above age group, 17 out of 31 representing 55% listened to music to help eliminate stress. An analysis on gender shows that out of 25 females the influence of music is high amongst 5 representing 20% of the sample audience, 6 of them (25%) found the influence of music to be low. However, majority of them that is 12 (48%) indicated the effects of music to be medium. Out of 25 people in the male group, 5 representing 20% found the effects of music to be high and 12 representing 48% found it to be medium. This shows that music on an average has a medium effect on both male and female. Of the unemployed group of 4, three indicated the effects of music to be low. This may suggest that they need more than just music to entertain them and relieve stress. Writers mostly consisting of neurologist have published several books on the subject of music and its effects on the brain. Musicophilia is a highly recommended book, a New York Times bestseller. Written by Oliver Sacks (Author) and published by Picador on the 2nd of November 2007. It has been awarded one of the Best Books of 2007 by the Washington Post and the editors of Amazon.com. According to Oliver Sacks, Music can move us to the heights or depths of emotion. It can persuade us to buy something, or remind us of our first date. It can lift us out of depression when nothing else can. It can get us dancing. But the power of music occupies more areas of our brain than language does humans are a musical species. In this book Oliver Sacks tells interesting tales of individuals affected with the worse case of neurological conditions but are perfectly capable of memorising and composing songs on the piano. This has in effect changed the way we view the human brain. In Musicophilia, he cautiously explores the influence of music through the individual experiences of patients suffering from Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers or amnesia, stroke and many more. It also involves musicians, performers and normal individuals who have been greatly affected by music. There are also scenarios of people struck by lightning and are suddenly motivated to become pianist, to an entire group of children with Williams syndrome who are hyper musical right from birth. Oliver Sacks scientifically explains why music is at times haunting, memorable and irresistible. The extraordinary neural robustness of music is also brought out in the following letter I was sent, about a well-known pianist. The pianist is now 88 and has lost language but he plays every day. When the Mozart is read, he points back and ahead well in advance of the repeats. Two years ago he recorded a complete four-hand repertoire of Mozart that he had recorded in the 1950s (Page 336). Whiles his language has began to fail him, I love his recent playing and conception even more than the earlier recording a colleague stated. Another letter was written to Oliver by one man briefly explaining how his wife was diagnosed with a brain disorder but still plays the piano on a daily basis. Although my wife has Alzheimers diagnosed at least seven years ago-the essential person miraculously remainsShe plays piano several hours daily, very well. Her present ambition is to memorize the Schumann A-minor Piano Concerto (Page 337). Alzheimers is a progressive and fatal brain disease. Alzheimers destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behaviour severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies or social life. Alzheimers gets worse over time, and it is fatal. Today it is the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States. Alzheimers disease accounts for 50 to 80 percent of dementia cases. And yet this woman who is, in most other spheres, grossly forgetful and disabled memorises plays full songs on the piano. Music can survive the most devastating brain damage. A herpes infection left Clive Wearing, a musicologist and musician, with a memory span of no more than a few seconds. His entire life form was overturned. But, confronted with a piece of music, he would first insist he had never played it before and then play it flawlessly. The process of making the music overcame his handicap. His wife wrote to Sacks of Clives at-homeness in music . . . where he transcends amnesia and finds continuum. Or there is the case of Tony Cicoria, a man struck by lightning in a telephone box. A few weeks later, he was overcome by an insatiable desire to listen to piano music. He bought CDs and sheet music and began to resurrect his childhood piano lessons. Then, involuntarily, he began to compose music in his head. A torrent of notes came, he said, from heaven. Cicoria now lives in music. Oliver Sacks concentrates on stories written or told by the victim or the victims relative rather than theory; he does not come to a definite conclusion about music in his book but our intuition is reinforced by elaborate analysis of particular situations. Music genres such as hip hop, rock and pop has been known to help promote crime. Violence, racism, homophobic behaviours or sexist lyrics in much of todays popular music could have an impact on impressionable young people who are just developing a sense. Numerous studies indicate that a preference for heavy metal music may be a significant marker for alienation, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, suicide risk, sex-role stereotyping or risk-taking behaviours during adolescence. (Source: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1999) In conclusion music is a very powerful tool that creates a connection to the human soul, body and mind. As shown in my work music is used to entertain, as therapy in hospitals to relieve stress, help in communication, express emotions, enhance concentration and maintain alertness and vigilance. It is also used in stores to promote sales and to motivate the workers.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Da Vinci Code ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, to my friend and editor, Jason Kaufman, for working so hard on this project and for truly understanding what this book is all about. And to the incomparable Heide Lange – tireless champion of The Da Vinci Code, agent extraordinaire, and trusted friend. I cannot fully express my gratitude to the exceptional team at Doubleday, for their generosity, faith, and superb guidance. Thank you especially to Bill Thomas and Steve Rubin, who believed in this book from the start. My thanks also to the initial core of early in-house supporters, headed by Michael Palgon, Suzanne Herz, Janelle Moburg, Jackie Everly, and Adrienne Sparks, as well as to the talented people of Doubleday's sales force. For their generous assistance in the research of the book, I would like to acknowledge the Louvre Museum, the French Ministry of Culture, Project Gutenberg, Bibliotheque Nationale, the Gnostic Society Library, the Department of Paintings Study and Documentation Service at the Louvre, Catholic World News, Royal Observatory Greenwich, London Record Society, the Muniment Collection at Westminster Abbey, John Pike and the Federation of American Scientists, and the five members of Opus Dei (three active, two former) who recounted their stories, both positive and negative, regarding their experiences inside Opus Dei. My gratitude also to Water Street Bookstore for tracking down so many of my research books, my father Richard Brown – mathematics teacher and author – for his assistance with the Divine Proportion and the Fibonacci Sequence, Stan Planton, Sylvie Baudeloque, Peter McGuigan, Francis McInerney, Margie Wachtel, Andre Vernet, Ken Kelleher at Anchorball Web Media, Cara Sottak, Karyn Popham, Esther Sung, Miriam Abramowitz, William Tunstall-Pedoe, and Griffin Wooden Brown. And finally, in a novel drawing so heavily on the sacred feminine, I would be remiss if I did not mention the two extraordinary women who have touched my life. First, my mother, Connie Brown – fellow scribe, nurturer, musician, and role model. And my wife, Blythe – art historian, painter, front-line editor, and without a doubt the most astonishingly talented woman I have ever known. FACT: The Priory of Sion – a European secret society founded in 1099 – is a real organization. In 1975 Paris's Bibliotheque Nationale discovered parchments known as Les Dossiers Secrets, identifying numerous members of the Priory of Sion, including Sir Isaac Newton, Botticelli, Victor Hugo, and Leonardo Da Vinci. The Vatican prelature known as Opus Dei is a deeply devout Catholic sect that has been the topic of recent controversy due to reports of brainwashing, coercion, and a dangerous practice known as â€Å"corporal mortification.† Opus Dei has just completed construction of a $47 million World Headquarters at 243 Lexington Avenue in New York City. All descriptions of artwork, architecture, documents, and secret rituals in this novel are accurate.

Friday, January 10, 2020

For Reasons Unknown

They are framed within the situation. However, the problem of Vladimir and Estrange in Waiting for God begins with their world and themselves. In fact, it is the beginning Of the play as well. They cannot realize the world nor can they realize themselves-?a characteristic of the typical absurdity as defined by Albert Campus in The Myth of Sisyphus. Like Campus in The Myth of Sisyphus, Go and Did do not know whether God exists or not. Their world without certainty promises only despair. They find a universe without moral restraint, so the universe is meaningless.The characters in the mentioned plays of Becket, Waiting for God and Act Without Words l, are condemned to move within the fixed framework of futility and hopeless labor. In The Myth of Sisyphus Campus observes: I see many people die because they judge that life is not worth living. See others paradoxically getting killed for the ideas or illusions that give them a reason for living (what is called a reason for living is also an excellent reason for dying). 1 Actually, Vladimir and Go have no reason to live nor have they any reason to commit suicide.They have a world which cannot be related with their idea of the past. They are driven by a nostalgic longing for the past that is unexplainable through the present. As Did says: the good of losing heart now, that's what say. We should have thought of it a million years ago, in the nineties. 2 Moreover, they have a present that is inexplicable through their idealism. Sago's boot, Dido's hat, the tree, the place, the day, Lucky and Bozo, the boy (or boys) and at last, God-?everything is incomprehensible to them. As a matter of fact, they are captured in the frame of their situation.Hence, for hanging themselves, the iris problem to Go and Did is the lack of rope and strong tree, that is, the devices and tools of committing suicide are absent here. Secondly, they cannot leave each other. If one hangs oneself successfully, whereas the other cannot, the other wil l remain lonely. So, they mar their plan of committing suicide. Thinking and talking of suicide, even trying it, may be a vision to them. It may be a way to pass the time. In fact, never do Vladimir and Estrange in Waiting for God think of suicide in a realistic context-?though suicide might have been an escape from the ennui Of life.Throughout the lay Vladimir and Estrange invent many devices to prove their existence and to pass the time. Taking off boots, Vladimir problem with his hat, their effort to commit suicide, their waiting for God-?all gives way to passing their time. It is an interesting fact that Vladimir and Estrange never search for other devices and processes for committing suicide. Maybe, a knife, a pistol, and starvation could suffice their purpose. Even, when they observe Lucky driven by rope, they forget all about it. They might have taken the rope forcibly for hanging themselves.In the second act it is easier for them to snatch it cause Bozo is blind and both of the two are helpless here. Moreover, they forget about when the devices are before them. In reality, they are not serious about killing themselves. They are only thinking of it, as many poets thought about and loved to die in imagination, but never committed suicide. Suicide for them, therefore, is just another diversion of fantasy. It is a strong consolation; it helps them to forget the boredom of everyday life where nothing can be done at all.They find it impossible for the two to kill themselves. They first realize that the only tree in their world, a weeping Lillo, will not support Vladimir weight on the noose and therefore will not break his neck. The second day, Vladimir and Estrange cannot hang themselves because they do not have the requisite piece of rope. By the second day, however, they have forgotten that they cannot hang themselves from the only available tree, and therefore their complaints about the lack of a suitable piece of rope are unnecessary.They observe a world that is devoid of the tools required for committing suicide. Accordingly they come, again and again, to the realization of nothing-to-be-done. Suicide might have been n end to this meaningless absurd life. They contemplate about hanging themselves on the tree. Suicide can be thought of the ultimate conclusion to a meaningless life. Campus claims that suicide is an attempt to escape from the consciousness of absurdity. But ultimately Campus proposes man to live. They do not commit suicide physically, yet they surrender to the captured situation.Whatever they do is to give the impression that they exist. But this sort of existence only calls for pity. Hanging from the tree would have proved that they have the guts at least to do something. This ontological problem is, no doubt, the main issue of the play. They are indecisive whether to go on this nothing-to-be-done life or to commit suicide. They are tired of living (Estrange says: I'm tired breathing. 3), yet they come to the realiz ation that ‘To be dead is not enough'. 4 They have no doubt that they are living beings. But they need a meaning to exist.So their realization will never let them commit suicide, rather they will be waiting for God until he comes. Again, their view of life is not to resign from life but to resume it. Vladimir, at the very outset of he play, clarifies it: â€Å"All my life I've tried to put it [Nothing to be done] from me, saying, Vladimir, be reasonable, you haven't yet tried everything. And I resumed the struggle. â€Å"5 After some time Go comments that Did always waits till the last moment. The big nothingness in their world has nothing to do with their life. They are hopeful in the depth of their minds of a bright future.So, Did says in the end of the first act, â€Å"Tomorrow everything will be better That is why they notice that the tree has sprouted leaves in the second act. Whether one says that in the two acts in the play nothing appends Nice or everything happens twice, Vladimir and Estrange are sentenced on the stage (symbolic of the life itself). They cannot escape it. They are habituated to such absurd life-?to talk, to eat, to wait and to live an meaningless life. Campus rightly puts it: â€Å"We get into the habit of living before acquiring the habit of thinking. ‘7 In this way all the character hopes to carry on living.Moreover, suicide itself may be considered as a vigorous aspect of life. When Go reminds Did of their plan of hanging, Did tells him that it them an erection. Suicide is considered in sexual term here. Though suicide as a sexual term may seem to be funny, it is, in fact, their view of life. They never consider suicide as the annihilation of life; rather their thought of suicide strengthens their bond and increases their yearning to live, as sexuality begets new life. In the mime play, Act without Words l, the only character is captured in the dust, symbolic of the uncomfortable life.In the beginning the man is see n trying to escape from this captured life, but he never can-?he is repeatedly thrown in the dust whenever he tries to escape. Gradually he becomes hopeless to flee, and surrenders himself to the taxation. In this play we find several steps. The entire action of the play takes place in a desert under the scorching sun, suggested by ‘dazzling light'. The unnamed man is directed by a whistle to move right or left. He can never escape the unbearable sun, though he is given a tree for shade. When he becomes intolerably thirsty he is shown water.But whenever he wants to catch it, it is lifted up somehow. He is forced to go without food and drink. The play seems a behaviorism experiment within the framework of the Greek classical myth of Tantalus, who stood in a pool of water which receded every mime he bent to drink it, and stood under a fruit tree which raised its branches every time he reached for food. The mythical Tantalus was punished for his own act. Whereas Godson's existenc e remains uncertain, in Act Without Words there is a God-like force, represented by a sharp whistle which will not permit the man to leave.The play is a parable of resignation from life; a condition one reaches only after a series of disappointments. The man has learned hardship that there is nothing he can depend on in life other than himself, even to commit suicide. Interestingly he cannot commit suicide also. Unlike Vladimir and Estrange, he has all the tools to kill himself-?tree, rope and noose, and box to stand on it. Yet he cannot commit suicide because whenever he needs the tools they somehow become unreachable.As a result, he has to submit to the situation without any effort to live or die. In this dumb show the man is not allowed to commit suicide, yet he is not allowed to be living. He is only granted inertia. AY last he is seen to lose hope to quench his thirst with water in the carafe. He remains defeated, having opted out Of the struggle. We observe here a man in frust rated efforts. The man in Act Without Words I possesses only two natural tools, mind and hands, which distinguish him from other animals, he tries to survive, to secure some water in the desert.The mind works, at least in part: he learns – small cube on large; he invents, or is given inventions – scissors, cubes, rope; he reacts and tries to end his life. But when he learns to use his tools effectively, they are confiscated: the scissors, when he reasons that in addition to cutting his fingernails, he might cut his throat; the blocks and rope, when he discovers that they might make a gallows. However, the man's effort to commit suicide s not a vision, rather he tries to escape a life that seems to be a nightmare. Yet he is seized in ‘no-exit' situation.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

A Brief Note On Journalism And Mass Media Essay - 1371 Words

Kregar 1 Rebecca Kregar 10/20/2016 Journalism and Mass Media Global Media Report Printed media is extremely important in not only in the US but in Italy and all over the world in today’s culture. The United States of America has twenty-five newspapers and Italy itself has seven different newspapers. The main number of newspapers are locally and/or regionally based. This shows Italy’s strong history. The most well-known national dailies are all Milan based. Corriere della Sera and Rome’s La Repubblica, followed by Turin’s La Stampa and Italy’s business news, Ii Sole 24 Ore. There are a number of weekly papers with a wide circulation and the most influential news magazines, Panorama and L’Espresso. Italy’s sports newspapers and the Catholic weekly, Famiglia Christina also have a very extensive popularity and readership. A statistic shows 80% of Italians actually are said to watch more television for their news verses reading the newspapers for the news. The highest percentage in Europe. Where the United States of A merica has twenty-five newspapers and Americans watch television for their news more often than reading the newspapers as well. Since 2013 American’s reading the news had dropped from 57% to 20% in 2016. The printed press in Italy has been almost completely independent but few are fearing that the cross media ownership laws could work to have less employees than they currently have. The Italian print newspaper market can be put into four segment. Paid forShow MoreRelatedThe Internet and How Society Consumes Media1493 Words   |  6 Pagesmidst of a media shift. Although there is still a need for traditional media, online media is finding its place in consumers needs. It’s important for professionals in the journalism industry to take note and understand the direction this change is taking. 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Print Where America Gets Its News Table of Contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦3 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.......................†¦4 Premise Statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 Personal Limitation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.......................†¦5 Methodology†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 Section 1: Birth of Electronic Media and its Popularity†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 Radio†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦6 Humble Beginnings†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......6 From Navigation toRead MoreThe Medias Role in Regional and International Relations with Regards to Development, Transition, and Influence3313 Words   |  14 Pagesto Development, Transition, and Influence I study Journalism, so I felt that I had an opportunity to solidify the medias role in all facets of regional and international relations, with regards to development, transition, and influence (regional as well as global). 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